Home / Volume 1 (2011) / Volume 1, Issue 2 (2011)

Volume 1, Issue 2 (2011)

Review

1- Evaluation of green urban areas: some study cases in Florence areas

F.Riccioli, G.Scozzafava
Page 103-114

Original Article

2-Impact of relocation of forest communities – a case from Chitwan National Park, Nepal

B.D. Sharma, I.D. Bhatta, N.C. Poudyal
page 115-122

Abstract

This paper presents a scenario of a relocation program carried out for the forest dwelling communities of Padampur Village of Chitwan National Park. The study was carried with an aim to identify the effect of such relocation programs on the conservation of the biodiversity – the park objective and on impact on the livelihood of people. In a more specific terms, the paper assesses the dynamics of access to and control over natural resources due to relocation and identifies the perceptions of the people involved in the relocation program itself and explores the extent that relocated people have generated or regained in terms of power for livelihood generation in new place. The findings showed that people’s accesses to the natural resources were limited after the relocation program and their roles over control of forest have increased. Relocated people were found with both opportunities and challenges to sustain their livelihood. However, the result also revealed a questionable implication of the relocation program; that is to say the site where the community from inside the park were resettled, happened to be actually the area, which also requires the conservation to achieve the objective of the park management.

Key-words: community forestry, forest conservation, biodiversity, livelihood, socio-economic dynamism

3-Screening of some soil Fusaria for cellulose activity and partial purification of cellulose
Lotfi, M. A.Tajick Ghanbary, G. Ranjbar, A. Asgharzadeh
page 123-132

Abstract

Several soil borne Fusaria species were screened for cellulase activity, partial purification and characterization of cellulase from superior isolates.  Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) and Wheat Straw (WS) were used as two sole carbon sources separately in a minimal culture medium.  Released proteins and sugars were assayed three days after inoculation with their related reagents and then these actions were repeated three days intervals.  Statistical analysis among tested Fusarium species showed significant variation in released sugars, but no significant variation in released proteins.  The highest and lowest released sugars were produced by F. solani and F. oxysporium, respectively.  The highest released sugars in F. solani isolates were observed 9 and 12 days post inoculation for WS and CMC media, respectively.  Released proteins in F. solani indicated the highest increased in 12 and 6 days post inoculation on WS and CMC media, respectively.  Optimal conditions for cellulase partial purification of F. solani grown in CMC and WS supplemented media were pH 6 and temperature between 40-50°C.  The study on protein bands showed that, only one with molecular weight of 24 kDa, out of all tested protein bands on CMC medium, indicated the cellulase activity.  Our observations showed that different Fusaria species have dissimilar behaviors and variable speeds in cellulose degradation. Also, WS medium showed high ability for producing cellulase enzyme that can be effectively used as a cheap organic waste medium.  Characterization of cellulase F. solani showed that this strain produced a acidophilic, and thermostable cellulase.

Key-words: Fusarium, cellulase activity, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC), Wheat Straw (WS), Released protein, Released sugar, partial purification       

4-The function of plant richness and diversity on eco-balancing of upland rangeland on Alborz Mountains (North of Iran)
M.H. Jouri, D.N. Patil, R. S. Gavali, N. Safaiean
Page 133-142

Abstract

The use of vegetation indices of remote sensing data in vegetation mapping has been long recognised. However، the accuracy of mapping through the use of vegetation indices model has limitations، and has so far not been investigated. This study analysed the performance of the several intrinsic-based vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index-NDVI and Ratio Vegetation Index- RVI) and soil line-based vegetation indices (Perpendicular Vegetation Index-PVI، Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index-SAVI and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index-MSAVI) for mangrove mapping in Kelantan Delta، Malaysia. Landsat TM was used as a primary data set to derive mangrove vegetation class from five vegetation indices model. A total of five mangrove classes consisting of Avicennia-Sonneratia، Avicennia، Acanthus-Sonneratia، Mixed-Acrostichum and Mixed Sonneratia with accuracy 72.67% were determined from unsupervised classification. Then the models were applied on classified image، resulting in mangrove classes which were mapped into three and four classes، respectively. The performance of each VI’s was analysed in accuracy assessment. The accuracy assessment of vegetation indices were ranged from 69.17% to 79.14%. The results revealed that the SAVI was the better performance discriminate mangrove class amongst the four classes compared to others indices with accuracy 79.14%. It might be due to sensitiveness of SAVI model in discriminating the full range of vegetation covers in muddy area. The capability of Landsat TM in mapping mangrove in this study using VI’s models showed the better result، However، the performance of VI’s need to be further investigated for specific use of mangrove resources. This is important where accurate information on mangrove biodiversity status in all habitat level is needed for conservation and monitoring towards achieving sustainable development to the country.

5-Whiteflies (Hemiptera-Aleyrodidae) breeding on Teak (Tectona grandis L. f) in India with description of a new species
R.Sundararaj , R. Pushpa
Page 143-150

Abstract

Detailed surveys were conducted to identify the whiteflies breeding on teak in India. The whitefly infested leaves were collected from teak and permanent mounts of the puparia were prepared and their identity was confirmed. The study revealed the presence of seven species of whiteflies breeding on teak In India. They include earlier reported four species viz، Pealius splendens (David، Sundararaj & Regu)، Martiniella fletcheri (Sundararaj & David)، Aleurolobus sundararaji Regu & David and Aleurodicus dispersus Russell; two new records viz.، Aleurolobus moundi David & Subramaniam and Pealius sairandhryensis Meganathan & David and a new species of the genus Aleurocanthus. The new species is described with illustration and other species are listed with their host range. Further، a suitable illustration of the puparium of each species is provided along with a key for identification.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Whiteflies, Tectona grandis, India

6-Abundance of gall-inducing insects in Ouratea hexasperma: response to vigor or escape from hypersensitivity
W.S.de Araú, , jo , B.A.Ribeiro , B. B.dos Santos
Page 151-156

Abstract

The plant vigor hypothesis predicts that more vigorous plants or branches are preferentially selected by female galling insects for oviposition. The hypersensitivity reaction is a defense mechanism of some plants of brazilian Cerrado، where morphological and physiological changes cause the death of damaged tissue and the gall-inducing insect. We examine the abundance of Cecidomyiidae galls in Ouratea hexasperma in Caldas Novas، Brazil، aiming to answer the following questions: 1) Do galling insects prefer the more vigorous branches? 2) Is the hypersensitivity reaction more frequent in smaller and less vigorous branches? We sampled 24 individuals from the host plant and collected five branches of each، and measured the length of the branch، the number of leaves، the total number of galls and number of galls with hypersensitivity reaction. Linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship of abundance of galls with the plants vigor and the number of leaves per branch being the most important variable. The number of galls with a hypersensitivity was influenced both by the length of the module as the number of leaves per branch. As expected، smaller and less vigorous branches had more of a hypersensitivity reaction. Generally، these areas have high concentrations of tannins and phenolic compounds to protect them against attack from herbivores. Is expected to short and young branches have more hypersensitivity reactions of the larger branches. Thus، the preference of galling by more vigorous branches could be a leak from a hypersensitivity reaction and not simply a response to the vigor.

Keywords: defense mechanism, galls abundance, hypersensitivity, plant vigor

7-Measurement of Microbial activity and Applicability of Dissolved DNA as indicator of microbial activity in pasturage soil
H. Kheyrodin , H. Antoun
Page 157-164

Abstract

Bamni sub watershed is one of the important watersheds at Hasdeo river basin in central India. It covers 1567.09 sq km area and is situated between 680-716 m elevations. IRS 1-D LISS III image analysis of October، 2008 of sub watershed shows that the catchment has a total 25.58% land cover as dense forest، 23.19% is open forest، 34.20% is non forest، 0.59% is scrubland and 16.44% is water bodies. The catchment of Bamni sub watershed is dominated by Sal forest which entail Sal Forest (278.30 km2)، Sal Mixed forest (53.49 km2)، Mixed Miscellaneous forest (55.36 km2)، Dry Deciduous forest (9.59 km2) and Teak forest (4.24 km2). Under the catchment of this sub watershed area agriculture land without crop has been recorded 53.85% and agriculture land with crop has been 46.15%. The local population settlement of the catchment is distributed very unevenly. The whole Bamni area shows a pattern of sustainable utilization of the natural resources.

Keywords: Bamni sub watershed, Land cover, Sal forest, Hasdeo river basin, Remote sensing

Short Communication

8- Effects of Neem leaves powder on groundnuts termites, Microterms thoracolis and white curbs, Phyllophaga crinita and on Yield in Gedarif State
El.N.H. Suliman
Page 165-168

Abstract

Bamni sub watershed is one of the important watersheds at Hasdeo river basin in central India. It covers 1567.09 sq km area and is situated between 680-716 m elevations. IRS 1-D LISS III image analysis of October، 2008 of sub watershed shows that the catchment has a total 25.58% land cover as dense forest، 23.19% is open forest، 34.20% is non forest، 0.59% is scrubland and 16.44% is water bodies. The catchment of Bamni sub watershed is dominated by Sal forest which entail Sal Forest (278.30 km2)، Sal Mixed forest (53.49 km2)، Mixed Miscellaneous forest (55.36 km2)، Dry Deciduous forest (9.59 km2) and Teak forest (4.24 km2). Under the catchment of this sub watershed area agriculture land without crop has been recorded 53.85% and agriculture land with crop has been 46.15%. The local population settlement of the catchment is distributed very unevenly. The whole Bamni area shows a pattern of sustainable utilization of the natural resources.

Keywords: Bamni sub watershed, Land cover, Sal forest, Hasdeo river basin, Remote sensing

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