1- Seed production in weedy Setaria spp.-gp
MJ.Haar , J.Dekker
Seeds from Setaria faberi، S. viridis and S. pumila panicles in three Iowa crop fields were collected for the entire reproductive period. Seed number، panicle length، and seed number per panicle length varied among species، panicle types and sites. Greater numbers of seed per plant and per panicle were observed than previously reported. Setaria seed rain exhibited some stable، and many more plastic، responses. S. faberi panicles were consistently longer than those of S. viridis. S. viridis parameters were greater than S. pumila. Earlier panicles were greater than، or similar to، later ones for all parameters. More typically، tillers and panicles responded to local conditions in a plastic way، confounding the formulation of seed production generalizations. In S. faberi and S. viridis no consistent relationship between seed number and panicle length was observed among different tiller types. A more consistent relationship between parameters was observed for S. pumila compared to the others، making prediction possible for this species. The stability and plasticity of these relationships is partially due to the differences in S. faberi and S. viridis panicle، fascicle and spikelet morphology compared to S. pumila. These stable and plastic responses provide fine-scale adjustment to a locality، maximizing exploitation of local opportunity.
Keywords: seed rain, tillering, panicle, plasticity, prediction, fecundity
2-Identification and evaluation of diverse genotypes in Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. for genetic improvement in seed traits
B.N. Divakara , H.D. Upadhyaya , R. Krishnamurthy
Pongamia (Pongamia pinnata [L.] Pierre.) Is a highly cross pollinated species and exhibits a wide spectrum of variation in the pod and seed traits. An evaluation of twenty-four Candidate Plus Trees [CPTs] of pongamia was carried out to elucidate the extent of genetic variability، correlation available among the pod and seed traits for diversity analysis and use in breeding. Eleven CPTs were promising for 100-pod weight، seed length، 100-seed weight and oil content. CPT – 19 had good combination for seven traits viz. pod length [65.5 mm]، 100- pod weight [541.3 g]، 2D surface area [348.7 mm2]، seed length [27.7 mm]، seed breadth [17.4 mm]، 100-seed weight [202.3 g] and oil content [28.5 %]. This would be an important genotype to follow further and use in breeding program. CPT – 14 showed the lowest expression for 100-seed weight [107.6 g] and oil content [28.5 %]. High estimates of heritability and high genetic advance observed for 100-pod weight، 100-seed weight and oil content، indicated the possibility of their improvement by selection. Oil content was particularly correlated at genotypic and phenotypic levels with 100-seed weight [rg = 0.62، rp = 0.58] and 100-pod weight [0.50، 0.46]. The first four Principal Component [PCs] explained large portion [86.4 %] of the total variation. Cluster analysis resulted into two broad clusters with cluster-1 having 6 CPTs and cluster-2 having 18 CPTs. Six CPTs in cluster-1 [CPT – 4، 5، 6، 7، 9 and 19] had combination of desirable traits and can be directly selected for further improvement by breeding.
Keywords: Pongamia pinnata, co, efficient of variation, heritability, correlation and diversity analysis
3-Volatile compounds produced by Calotropis procera (Family: Asclepiadaceae] leaves that aid in the repulsion of grazers
D.J. Russell , M.H. Al Sayah , F.M. Munir
Calotropis procera، a desert shrub with large succulent leaves، but without protective spines، was investigated for volatile substances that aid in repelling grazing animals. It was found that fresh C. perociera leaves produced volatile organic compounds that included thioacetic acid، 2،3-dihydro-3،5-dihydroxy-6- mehtyl-4H-pyran-4-one، and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde. The most probable repellent of grazers from leaves of C. procera was thioacetic acid. The ecological significance is that C. procera uses irritating volatiles to repel desert grazers in addition to toxins rather than the usual plant defense mechanisms، such as the production of numerous spines.
Keywords: Calotropis procera, grazing, repellants, thioacetic acid, irritating volatiles
4-Microbial community structures of degraded and undegraded humid tropical forest soils as measured by phospholipid fatty acid [PLFA] profiles
S.C.Tiwari , S. Sureshkumar Singh , M. S. Dkhar , M. Schloter , A. Gattinger
5-BiDiversity of Medicinal Plants of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India-A Review
M. C Sidhu , S.Thakur , A. S.Ahluwalia
The Present survey reveals the occurrence of 364 taxa belonging to 282 genera and 92 families. Majority of these are from to family Fabaceae [38 species]، followed by Asteraceae [32 species]، Euphorbiaceae [18 species] and Moraceae [13 species]، Malvaceae، Solanaceae and Verbenaceae [12 species each]، Acanthaceae، Apocynaceae and Scrophulariaceae comprised of 10 species each whereas other families such as Acoraceae، Anacardiaceae، Campanulaceae، Fumariaceae، Papaveraceae، Phytolacaceae، Proteaceae etc. are represented by only one species. Majority of the species are herbs. Out of total 364 species، 349 are known to be used for medicinal purposes. Evidences suggested that the study area is rich in medicinal plant diversity which may be due to favourable ecological conditions and variable habitats. In this investigation، the richest floral diversity present in Panjab University Campus has been recorded.
Keywords: Medicinal plants, angiosperms, biodiversity
6-National Policy’s Influence on Baoxing County’s Landscape Patterns and Giant Panda Population
J.Jian , H.Jiang , W.Yanga
As one of the most important hometowns of Giant Panda، Baoxing county’s landscape، which is mainly influenced by National Policy Change the ،national policy change، plays an important role in Giant Panda‘s protection. Thus، it is crucial to understand how and what the national policy change on landscape patterns change in Baoxing county. In this paper، Landsat MSS data in 1975، Landsat TM data in 1994 and Landsat ETM data in 2002، with the dates corresponding to the same time as the time of national policy changes، are classified to make the landscape patterns، change. The results indicate that، from 1975 to 1994، due to the crawling in this area، the forests have decreased about 5.92% with fragments created، grassland has decreased about 2.64%، farmland has increased about 1.5% and settlement place has increased about 7.15%. Accordingly، the Giant Panda’s population shows all fall from 328 to 75. But from 1994 to 2002، owing to the policies to protect the Giant Panda and its habitat، the forests has increased about 0.12%، grassland has increased about 0.55%، farmland has decreased about 0.58% and the fragment of forests in 2002 is lower than in 1994. Accordingly، the Giant Panda’s population show as increase from 75 to 143. This indicates that the national performed actioned during 1990s has much positive influence on the landscape patterns and the Giant Panda population in Baoxing county.
Keywords: Baoxing, landscape, Giant Panda, policy, supervised classification
7-GIS method applied to estimate the cost of dry-built stone retaining masonry walls in application of the Tuscany Rural Development Plan 2007-2013
F.Riccioli , J.P.El.Asmar , T.El.Asmar
In compliance with the European Commission Reg.[EC] n°1782/03 articles 4 and 5، aiming at promoting sustainable use of agricultural land، the Tuscany Rural Development Plan [RDP] 2007-2013، includes the rehabilitation of countryside and quality of life in rural areas. The rehabilitation and preservation of retaining stone masonry walls [RSMW] for hydro-geological protection and preservation of local tradition، is one among the active implementations in response to the RDP recommendations. However، rehabilitation costs are very high and difficult to be determined. This paper aims at testing a methodology that allows generating، through Geographic Information System [GIS]، a raster map geo-referencing RSMW in order to guide decision makers for a correct allocation of funds. A case study in the area of Pistoia in the region of Tuscany will allow testing the method and RSMW will be classified according to restoration cost.
Keywords: sustainable rural development, retaining masonry walls, rehabilitation costs
8-Preparation of forest management plans in medial Zagros forests, Iran.
M.Zandebasiri , H.Ghazanfari , A.Sepahvand , P.Fatehi , R.Moradi
The aim of this study is comparison of the determined Forest Management Unit [FMU] by Forests and Rangelands Organization [FRO] with the local society units the selection of forest management plan in the Zagros forests in Iran. The research was carried out in "Taf" territory in province of Lorestan which is located in middle Zagros forests. The decision making for the determination of FMU needs multiple factors. For this purpose، Stakeholder analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process [AHP] was applied. Results showed that Social requests، Adaptability with natural resources plans، Topography، Forest type، Cost of forest management plan and Effectiveness of forest management plan are the Criterion for determining FMU in medial Zagros forests. Results of applying AHP indicate that choosing local society units for FMU is a better choice in Zagros forests.
Keywords: Forest Management Plan, Forest Management Unit, Stakeholder Analysis, Zagros, Lorestan
9-Morphological Diversity of Amygdalus arabica Oliv. In Natural Forests of Ilam Province, Iran
J.hoseinzadeh , K.Saeb
Mountain almond [Amygdalus arabica Oliv.] as a food and pharmaceutical plant,
is seen in 8 semi-arid regions of Ilam province, existing as a relatively pure and
dominant stands or as scattered form, especially in areas with gypsum base stone
in an altitude range between 600 to 1700 meters above sea level. This plant is a
shrub with height of 2 m that sometimes reach a height of 5 m and stump
diameter of 20 cm with narrow, long, smooth green branches, and brown to grey
stems and relatively spherical crown. In this research, changes in particular
characteristics such as seed form and size in different regions of the province,
have been studied. Results indicated that there are significant changes in the
studied properties, that is expected because of their other masculine flowers. The
variation in this plant could be suitable and used as a gene bank for modified
The leaves are simple and lanceolate shape, dark green to bright, sharp end and
tined base with uneven margins, a length of 1.6 to 2.5 cm and width 6 to 10
millimeters. Petiole is light green and the length is between 2 to 3 mm. The
flowers are other masculine androgen, large size and white tended to red color as
clusters. The fruit contains a grain seed that tends to long oval spherical shape
with 1 to 2 cm in length and width of 6 to 10 mm. Seeds weight ranged between
300 and 750 grams.
Keywords: Physiological diversity, Amygdalus arabica Oliv., Ilam Province
10-Study on the need for Sustainable Development in Educational Institutions, an ecological- A case study of Collage of Engineering- Guindy, Chennai, India
Sustainability has become the key word of the developing world and it is evident in many of the issues the growing economy is facing nowadays. Sustainability is the need of the hour for the Indian economy to support our future generation with a cleaner، safer environment. Legal framework implemented by the governing bodies such as Pollution Control Board is also supporting the implementation of sustainable Development by new enforcements introduced then and there، but it’s questionable as to the effectiveness of this frameworks. Most of the enforcements are focusing to imply the sustainability in industries or equivalent organizations but not putting thrust on all polluting bodies-educational institutions is one among them. Recent growth in educational scenario in India which had increased the number of educational institutions to a large extent also increased the effect on environment by their activities. Growth of the educational sector and the number of institutions catering various fields of education is needed for India but the growth should be optimized in a way such that it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Various methods are developed recently to find out the exact problems associated with the environment. Geographical Information System (GIS) is one among them taking a big leap in the recent years in the area of environmental problem identification. This paper provides the details of the environmental impacts of educational institutions with case studies and also suggests a sustainable framework to make them environmental-friendly by the use of (GIS).
Keywords: Sustainable Development, GIS, Optimization, Framework, Legislation