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Volume 2, Issue 1 (2012)


1- Review on biodiversity of tree and shrub communities in desert regions (Case study: Khorasan province in Iran)
M.T.Kashki ,H. Amirabadizadeh

Page 1-8



At present، although there is good information about Iran flora، but the body of information about the level of knowledge on the ecology and recognition of plant communities in dry land region is poor. Vegetation covers were identified as trees، shrubs، psamophyle and halophyte. Results showed that the grown trees in the geographic domain of desert territory of Khorasan was composed of three different communities within an area of 70،602 hectares which is about 0.6 % of the vegetation cover in the study an area of 2125480 hectares equal to 17.6% of the vegetation were covered by shrubs with seven communities (except psamophyle and halophyte species).

Keywords: Plant communities, ecological criteria, physiognomy, Desert areas, Khorasan province

2-Sustainable development and the trend of changing energy consumption pattern in Iran
M.H.Heidarzadeh, Z. Hesami

page 9-16


Sustainable development means providing solutions to the transient patterns of physical، social and economic development that could prevent some Problems such as destruction of natural resources، destruction of biological systems، global climate change، pollution، uncontrolled population increase، injustice and low quality of human life and the next stop. Energy consumption is one of major problem in Iran that causes unstable environment. Energy consumption in transportation sector accounts for the most share of consumption after household and commercial consumption and has the first grade of financial value among other sectors. On the other hand، the sector of transportation plays a positive and necessary role in economic and social development and certainly، transportation requirements will increase in future. However، since the sector of transportation is one of the sources of air pollution، it is necessary to revise the current transportation systems and the effective management and design of transportation systems. In this paper، we have tried to review the trend of energy consumption in sector of transportation of Iran in a 5 year period. Then، the energy consumption in the sector was compared with the Middle East region and the whole world. The reviews show that Iran is the only country in the Middle East that uses natural gas in its transportation sector. Also، the share of natural gas consumption in sector of transportation of the country was 0.35% of the whole world in 2005. The average growth of final consumption of petroleum products in sector of transportation of the country (6.3%) in the examined 5 year period was more than the average growth of consumption of these products in the whole world (4.6%).For example، in 2005، the share of the final consumption of petroleum products in transportation sector of Iran in the world and in the Middle East is 1.7 and 32.6%، respectively. In recent years، the consumption of gasoline has reached 74 million liters per day with a growth about 10%in 2006. Finally، management procedures are presented for optimizing consumption of energy carriers in transportation sector.

Keywords: transportation sector, consumption pattern, energy carriers, Ir

Original Article

3-Abundance and Serotyping of pathogenic isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from Ajloun Forests
F. Al-Momani, M.Obeidat

page 17-21


The investigation of Bacillus thuringiensis in 16 forest soil samples at Ajloun Northren Jordan involved the isolation of 23 isolates toxic to the third instar dipteran larvae of Drosophila melnogaster. The highest viable count of B. thuringiensis was in Ebeen forest soils (14.24 x 107 CFU/g) and the lowest viable count was in Rasoun forest soils. The lethal concentration (LC50) of B. thuringiensis isolates indicated a variation in their toxicity to D. melnogaster. Serotyping of the 23 toxic isolates revealed that they belonged to 5 serotypes, including; israelensis, kenyae, kurstaki, malaysiensis, and morrisoni. Serotype israelensis was the most dominant. It was observed that isolates producing spherical parasporal crystals were the most abundant in the forest soils. The mortality of most isolates against D. melanogaster larvae at a constant dose of crystal-spore suspension was ≥50% after 36 h of incubation. Hydrolytic activities of B. thuringiensis isolates recovered from forests were varied due to differences in their enzymes productivity. Most isolates have CMCase, pectinase, amylase, lipase, and gelatinase activity. Maceration activity of the isolates to potato was more frequent than that to carrot. Therefore, forest environment can be categorized as a rich source for B. thuringiensis isolates that can be used in biological control and plant residue biodegradation. As a result, B. thuringiensis recovered from forests can be used to increase soil fertility and to enhance plant growth as well as productivity.

Keywords: thuringiensis; Forest; Parasporal; Larvicidal; Maceration

4-Impact assessment of climatic condition on rangeland vegetation cover through RS and GIS techniques
S.Poormohammadi, M.H.Rahimian, M.Kalantar, S.Poormohammadi

Page 23-31


In this study an indicator was introduced, namely “impact factor” (I). It shows impacts of long term climatic conditions on rangeland vegetation status. It considers precipitation and temperature as two main climatic parameters and also a remotely sensed vegetation index, SAVI. The impact factor was successfully implemented in this case study through integration of MODIS time series and eight meteorological station records. Also digital elevation model (DEM) was employed as an ancillary data for interpolation and generation of temperature and precipitation maps. In the studied region, northern areas which were also the plain outlet showed the maximum “I” values compared with other areas. These areas were found more susceptible to degradation of their resources (vegetation cover) as direct impacts of climatic conditions and drought spells.

Keywords: MODIS, Vegetation Cover, Climate, Rangeland, Impact Factor

5-Clonal Variability and Divergence Studies in Tamarindus indica L.; A Multipurpose Fruit Tree N. Divakara, Rathakrishnan
Page 32-42


Exploration of clonal variability and divergence among thirty-five high yielding genotypes of Tamarindus indica L. selected from south India was carried out as a scope for further genetic improvement. Significant variation was expressed for all the growth characters under field condition. Maximum plant height (60.33 cm), number of branches (19.78) collar diameter (1.49 cm), and Volume index (245.78 cm3) was recorded by CPT-22, CPT-5, CPT-7 and CPT-7 respectively. Higher GCV (42.83 %), heritability (78.98 %) and genetic gain (78.40 %) were found to be high for trait volume index. All the morphometric traits registered positive and highly significant association with volume index at both phenotypic and genotypic level. Path analysis revealed that, collar diameter (0.594) followed by height (0.450) expressed maximum direct positive effect on volume index and number of branches contributed indirectly through height and collar diameter. Genetic diversity analysis resolved thirty-five genotypes under investigation into 6 clusters, indicating wide diversity. Cluster I contained eight genotypes and showed maximum intra cluster distance (2.74) closely followed by cluster-VI (2.73) because the genotypes used for breeding program were from different locations. The highest inter-cluster distance was found between cluster III and V (7.63) followed by II and V (7.45) suggesting wide diversity between these groups. Cluster V recorded maximum mean values for all traits, hence these genotypes can be directly selected and utilized for breeding program. The trait volume index contributed maximum for genetic diversity as per cent contribution and rank total, 34.96 and 208 respectively.
Keywords: Tamarindus indica, variability, heritability, genetic advance, association, genetic divergence

6-Relationship between soil factors and vegetation type by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA)
S.Aleemahmoodi, R.Basiri, H.A.sarabi
Page 43-49


Forest soils, one of the main factors in forest ecology are the interaction with other component of this complex ecological system, one of the main providers of the pattern and dispersion plant in this collection. Two vegetative type(Amygdalus orientalis Duh and Quercus brantii Lindl) located in Golzar Susan, Khuzestan province, with the area of 78 ha, was selected in order to investigate the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetative types. Systematic random method was used for achieving this purpose, 40 sample plots with an area 1200 square meter in each sample was taken. In each sample plot, cover percentage of the tree species, litter percentage and cover percentage of herbs with the estimated of in every 0.5 square meters, Soil samples and percentage of rock cover were taken. Some of the variables such as soil acidity, soil salinity, calcium carbonate, carbon, organic material, nitrogen, phosphor, potassium and the saturation percentage were measured. The data was analyzed by independent sample T-test was performed. The results showed that there was significant differences between the soil acidity, percent of rock cover and calcium carbonate in the soil of two site. The CCA analysis was performed for determined the relationships between vegetation and the environmental factors. The results of CCA analysis showed that there is a significant difference among the soil variables of the three groups; soil acidity, the percentage of calcium carbonate and the amount of phosphor. The first axis has a negative correlation with the variables of rock cover percentage (r=-0.749), acidity (r= -0.627) and calcium carbonate (r=-0.533) and has a positive correlation with the litter percentage variable (r=0.446). The phosphor variables (r=-0.374) and the litter percentage (r=0.432) have the most correlation with the second axis than other variables.

Keywords: vegetation, soil characteristics, CCA, Khuzestan, Golzar, Iran

7-Seasonal wood degradation activity of Odontotermes spp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) in Bangalore urban district, India
R.R.Shanbhag, R.Sundararaj
Page 50-55


Seasonal wood degradation activity of four species of Odontotermes viz., O. horni (Wasmann), O. feae (Wasmann), O. obeus (Rambur) and O. wallonensis (Wasmann) was studied at Nallal, in Bangalore Rural district of Karnataka, India for two years from November 2007 to October 2009. It revealed that wood degradation was most during April to June, moderate from July to October and least from November to March. The correlation of termite catch with climatic conditions indicated that the activity of O. obesus and O. horni and O. feae was significantly correlated with minimum temperature, maximum soil temperature, minimum relative humidity, total rainfall and number. of rainy days. Maximum soil temperature was negatively correlated with the termite catch. O. wallonensis showed non-significant positive correlation with maximum soil temperature and negative correlation with minimum relative humidity, total rainfall and number. of rainy days.
Keywords: Population dynamics, seasonal trends, Odontotermes spp., wood destroying termite, Hevea brasiliensis

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