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Volume 2, Issue 2 (2012)


1- Predicting the Effects of Vegetation Management Practices on Hydrologic Processes of Watersheds in the Colorado River Basin
P.F. Ffolliott
Page 56-62


Water shortages are expected throughout the western regions of the United States in the upcoming decades. The impact of these shortages is anticipated to be severe to the increasing numbers of people in the Colorado River Basin where possible climatic changes could cause a 10 to 30 percent reduction in streamflow volumes (Nash and Gleick 1991, Christensen et al. 2004). Implementing vegetation management practices to increase streamflows from upland watersheds is one of the possible solutions to this situation. The best opportunities for increasing streamflows by these management practices are found in high-elevation coniferous forests and low-elevation sclerophyllous shrublands of the basin. Obtaining predictions of responses of hydrologic processes including changes in streamflow volumes to vegetation management practices in these ecosystems is the focus of this paper. A hypothetical scenario illustrating how these predictions are applied in the Colorado River Basin is also presented.

Keywords: Colorado River Basin, hydrologic processes, prediction, streamflow increases, vegetation management practices, watersheds.

Original Article

2- Impact of Banana Based Agroforestry on Degraded Sal Forest (Shorea robusta C.F. Gaertn) of Bangladesh: a Study from Madhupur National Park
B.Roy ,Md. H.Rahman, M. J.Fardusi
Page 63-72


Over three decades various agroforestry systems have been introduced in Madhupur Sal forest in an attempt to check for over-exploitation, encroachment and agricultural expansion. An explanatory survey has been conducted to assess the impacts of banana based agroforestry system through respondents’ survey using a semi structured questionnaire, soil properties analysis and quantitative analysis of species diversity. A total of sixty farmers engaged in banana based agroforestry have been interviewed randomly from the two ranges of Madhupur National Park. A total of 50 plots (10m x 10m) were established randomly for quantitative analysis of species and twenty soil samples were collected for soil analysis from two land uses (25 in each) i.e. banana based agroforestry land use and in the Sal forest of Madhupur NP. Results obtained from soil analysis revealed that soil pH condition (4.62) and average organic matter (OM) content (2.57%) were higher in banana based agroforestry soil than that of Sal forest (pH 5.03 and OM 2.02%). Conversely, the amount of moisture content (11.62%) and Sulphur (S) were higher in Sal forest (66.06 μg/g soil). Biological diversity indices were calculated in order to check the status of species diversity for both land use systems. Indiscriminate use of fertilizers, chemicals in soil together with clearing forest for banana cultivation have been reducing the coppicing power Sal trees and destroying the biodiversity of the forest. A sustainable forest management plan giving priority on Sal trees on all degraded areas and creating alternative income generation activities for banana cultivators has been recommended highly in order to maintain the uniqueness of the forest.

Keywords: Agroforestry, Shorea robusta; Soil properties; Biological diversity indices; Benefits and drawbacks; Bangladesh.

3- The Cross River gorilla and large mammals species diversity in the in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape, Cameroon
M.F. Nkemnyi, L. Nkembi, A.E. Nkemanteh, E.M. Nku
Page 73-79


Lebialem-Mone Forests Landscape is located in Western Cameroon and constitutes a transitional zone of rainforest and forest savannah. This study assessed large mammals’ diversity with focus on the Cross river gorilla and anthropogenic activities in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape, Cameroon. A total of 36 transects of 4x4 km grid were surveyed. Relative density was estimated for mammal signs and human activities using DISTANCE. All data on large mammals were lumped together and encounter rates for each transect estimated for the determination of biodiversity hot spots. Spatial distribution maps were produced using geo-referenced relative densities that were imported into Arcview 3.2 for shape files production and finally into ArcGIS 9.2. This study documents the abundance and distribution of 7 species of large mammals including 2 great apes; Pan troglodytes elliotti and Gorilla gorilla diehli. The overall Relative Density of large mammals in the forest landscape was estimated to be 0.64 signs per km with high potential for great apes. The highest mean encounter rates for human activities in the study area were recorded for hunting. The findings of this survey indicate that the forest landscape lodges a fragile and important population of great apes and large mammals. The levels of hunting and agricultural activities eventually increase the pressure on the wildlife populations and the landscape.

Keywords: Cross River gorilla, Species diversity, Species density, anthropogenic activities

4-Ecological characteristics of the Tecomella undulata tree Case study(Iran - Fars - DARAB)
Mahmoodi ,I.Soheili , I.Farokh-Nejad
Page 80- 85


Tecomella undulata One of the valuable native plant species and is compatible with arid and desert of Iran. This plant To Title Species A Important For Protection Areas Dry, Fixation Sand At Areas Talented Erosion And Also Adequate shelter For Life Wildlife Are. According to Chen, the purpose of protection, and the pharmaceutical industry, forage and green plant native to Iran, Iran is still in extensive research on this plant is not endangered. For this purpose, this research needs to examine the ecological and ecological characteristics of the pomegranate tree, native to the devil in the province - city of Fars and in two Fasarod (with latitude 28 10 N And longitude 54 11 E ) And the Paskhn (with latitude 28 47N And longitude 54 17 E ) Which had a larger distribution of this species were performed. Factors evaluated included soil electrical conductivity ( EC ), Osmotic pressure of soil ( OP ), And soil acidity ( PH ) Respectively. Soil test results showed that the T.undulata Pomegranate Fat sandy loam soil and soil with growing frequency will neutralize the acidity. Electrical conductivity that is representative of soil salinity on plant indicates that this plant growing in soil can also be quite salty. The middle of the rainfall is 150 mm and can be required for the growth temperatures Low (less than 5 degrees) and can tolerate temperatures above 50 degrees. Estrogen levels plant anal leaves with atomic absorption ( Atomic absorbtion ) Showed that the plant contains the elements zinc, manganese, iron, sodium and potassium. Because past climax plant community (climax) vegetation zone has been investigated, but now due to improper use of the plant endangered plants are located in Iran.

Keywords: pomegranate Devil (Tecomella undulata ) - Ecological requirements - soil, climate.

5- Composition, structure and diversity of tree speciesalong an altitudinal gradient in Jammu province of north-western Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Sharma, A. K. Raina
Page 86-95


Community structure and composition are important factors affecting diversity patterns in plant communities. Pertinently, species diversity along altitudinal and latitudinal gradient differs in different layers at different scales. Thirteen community groups characterized by different dominants in the tree layer were distinguished. These include Himalayan subtropical scrub (580-850 m asl), Northern dry mixed deciduous forest (600-1100 masl), Himalayan subtropical pine forest (780-1450 masl), Lyonia / Alnus / Rhododendron forest (1250-1500 masl), Mixed Oak forest (1300-2150 masl), Rhododendron - Oak mixed forest (1600-2200 masl), Pine / Oak mixed forest (1400-1750 masl), Pure Cedrus deodara forest (1450-1700 masl), Taxus wallichiana forest (2000-2580 masl), Deodar / blue pine mixed forest (1900-2600 masl), Fir / Spruce mixed forest (2700-3250 masl), pure Betula forest (3100-3500 masl), and alpine scrub (above 3500 masl). Distribution of importance values of dominants explicitly indicated a vertical pattern of these forest types.The sub-tropical and temperate elements of vegetation reveal predominance of closed canopy forests, wherein the subtropical tree species outnumber the temperate tree flora. The community analysis was performed using stratified random sampling involving 0.01 % of the total area for each community. The pattern of plant diversity as observed by the values of species richness and diversity indices show a decreasing trend from lower to higher altitudes. The study suggests that distribution and species richness are largely regulated by physiography (altitude, latitude, slope, aspect etc.) and climatic factors

Keywords: community, diversity, richness, gradient, importance values, physiography, vegetation.

6- Spatial Modeling of the K factor for two sub-catchments with different tillage and grazingCase study: loessial paired sub-catchments in the north-east of IRAN
Hosseinalizadeh, Edzer Pebesma, H. Ahmadi, Sadat Feiznia, F.Rivaz, Benedikt Gräler
Page 96-107


Soil erosion is the most extensive process of land degradation worldwide that has negative impacts on sustainable development. In many hilly cultivated areas, erosion caused by tillage is at least as important as water induced soil erosion.In particular, the effect of tillage erosion on fertile loess soils is of high importance. We examined the effect of tillage on intensively cultivated and hilly loessial subcatchments in the north-east of the Golestan Province, Iran. In this study, different strategies to assess the soil erodibility factor in two sub-catchments with different management policies, which include tillage and grazing, are considered. Different interpolation approaches are compared using crossvalidation. For the first sub-catchment, all spatial modelling strategies forerodibility in terms of the K-equation result in the same mean value.However, this is not the case for the second sub-catchment. Tillage and grazing have a substantial effect on soil erodibility, but different strategies of implementing the K-equation may not give this result. Both sub-catchments have the same range of local uncertainty. We conclude that in case of mapping and assessing uncertainty, two different modelling strategies should be used.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, tillage erosion, soil erodibility, loess soils, Iran

7- Struggle for Existence: Tusker’s Combat for Space in Shivalik landscape, North India Forests
Ritesh Joshi
Page 108-117


Tuskers in north India are combating for existence; and in this combat, either they are dying or killing people. Due to shrinkage of their large migratory corridors, slowly they lead to adapt to exist with humans and this has increased serious man–elephant conflict around Rajaji National Park and adjoining habitats. Since March 2007, 34 male elephants have died due to various reasons accounted primarily for unnatural deaths. However, 59 human deaths were also occurred since September 2006 in encounter with elephant at different parts of Rajaji–Corbett National Parks and corridor. The mortality rate for males was significantly higher than for females. Here, I report on the tusker’s battle for existence in Shivalik Elephant Reserve and conservation status. Such reports are highly required to know the status and our competence in illustrating success and failures of wildlife management besides achieving the goals of Project Elephant. Drastic changes in the land use pattern, increasing vehicle traffic on motor roads running across elephant’s habitat and ongoing anthropogenic activities inside the forest are expected to lead to a severe threat and unusual behavioural changes in elephants. In addition, some changes in tusker’s behavioural responses were also observed, which corroborate their irate behaviour. Understanding how animal populations react to such vast adverse activities and their behavioural response is thus essential for addressing future challenges for wildlife management and conservation. There have been little scientific studies available on such type of catastrophic impacts even though such reports are highly required to know the status and our competence in illustrating success and failures of wildlife management besides in conservation of an endangered wildlife.

Keywords: Asian elephant, tusker’s death, Rajaji–Corbett wildlife, corridor, conservation threat.

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