1- Structure and composition of woody vegetation in western Kachchh, Gujarat
2- Optimization and evaluation of various nitrogen sources on growth of selected oil degrading strains, isolated from the southern shore of the Caspian
G.Fathabadi , O.Asgharian ali m ,F.Fahimi , A.Shavandi m
marine pollution are factors that are constantly causing contamination of water and beach areas. Oil spills from ships at sea, oil wells, facilities, environmental and economic damage to coastal and so many are looking for [ 1 , 2]. The aim of this project, and optimization of crude oil degrading microorganisms isolated from Svyhhayy and evaluate the effect of various nitrogen sources on growth of selected strains in relation to oil pollution has been eliminated. samples were prepared from different parts of the coast. enrichment of oil degrading bacteria in the soil bed was designed and implemented. enrichment at the end of the process, the suspension liquid medium, were cultured on solid medium. With solid culture s, pure strains were obtained from single colonies. Effect of different sources of nitrogen for 4 types of different nitrogen sources, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), urea (CONH2CO), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in mineral medium was used. Then the medium that strains The comments are inoculated, Temperature in a shaker incubator at 27 ° C were, Strains to grow in environments that ships were in different nitrogen sources, are compared. Daily rate of bacterial growth and to help Uv-Vis devices were measured. Showed that strain S6-R1-1, the nitrogen in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) better than the other sources used. The ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, ammonium chloride, after which appropriate resource is suitable nitrogen source. Urea is the last category.
Keywords: marine pollution, enrichment, breeding, oil analysis, evaluation, optimization
3- Allelopathic Effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) on Germination and Growth of Seedling Cow Soapwort (Vaccaria hispanica) & Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens)
Sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.) Koch.] contains watersoluble allelochemicals that inhibit the germination and growth of other species. This characteristic could be used in weed management programmers'. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects on Vaccaria hispanica and Acroptilon repens. Its effect on two weedy species V. hispanica and A. repens was studied with a view to explore its herbicidal potential. Germination of both the weeds was reduced with increasing concentration of sunflower and a dose-response relationship was observed. This provided information on LC50 and Inhibition threshold concentrations of sunflower that could be useful for future studies. Further, sunflower also inhibited the growth of both the weeds in terms of root and shoot length and seedling dry weight. Inhibition of root growth was greater than that of shoot growth. Similar observations were made when the test weeds were grown in soil amended with different concentrations of sunflower. In addition to growth, there was a reduction of chlorophyll content in the growing seedlings. It also caused water loss in the weedy species. The study, therefore, reveals that sunflower exerts an inhibitory effect on the growth and development of both weeds and can be further explored as an herbicide for future weed management strategies.
Keywords: Allelochemical; Herbicidal activity; Dose–response relationship; Seedling growth; Sesquiterpene lactone
4- Seed mycoflora associated with Sapindus emerginatus Vahl.and their management
Sheela B.R, H.C. Nagaveni
The Sapindus emerginatus Vahl is an economically important tree which possess medicinal and as well as cosmetic properties. The mycoflora study showed that seed was composed of 20 isolates belonging 12 genera viz., Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gleosporium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Pencillium, Phomopsis, Phoma, Rhizopus. The diversity of fungi found on seeds using agar plate and blotter methods is reported and the variations of fungal flora harbored are compared. Agar plate method yielded quantitatively as well as qualitatively more fungi than blotter method. In vitro study of fungicides (Dithane M-45, Captaf, Blitox, Bavistin and Emisan) was also undertaken to check their efficacy to inhibit the seed fungi. Among the fungicides tested, Emisan, Dithane M-45 and Captaf were highly effective in restraining the seed born fungi.
Keywords: Sapindus emerginatus, seed mycoflora, and chemical fungicides
5- Biological Diversity: Who Owns
In recent years an increasing number of state-based protection schemes have asserted ownership over biodiversity goods and services through various forms of cultural documentation such as registry, archives, databases, texts and inventories. Natural resources are no way bounded by political boundary imposed by different nations. No man can hold the ownership on any plant or animal. Biological diversity doesn’t follow strict political boundaries of nations and doesn’t obey the artificial rules imposed on them based geographical limitations by man. This review clearly elucidates the how biological diversity is used and claimed by various groups of parties. It also encompasses the complex nature of biological diversity and its ownership claims.
Keywords: Biological Diversity, Benefit sharing, ownership, CBD
6- A Study of Secondary Succession in Some Parts of Clear- cut Area of Mountain Forest (north of Iran, Kojour)
Composition and species diversity in stands are severely affected by historical events, present happenings, extent and frequencies of natural and human disturbances. The aims of this research are the investigation of the secondary succession and changing pattern in species diversity in recovery period of vegetation at some clear- cut parts of forest in central Alborz Mountain, Kojour. Random sampling on two transects was carried out by selected sampling quadrate size for each vegetation type. We used unconstrained gradient analysis DCA for identifying species composition and measuring beta diversity in SD-units at different stages of the succession. Results have demonstrated increasing trend in beta diversity with the age of abandonment (succession stages) supporting divergence pattern in field succession. We obtained a significant hump-shaped pattern in species richness along the temporal gradient which agreed with intermediate species richness hypothesis. It seems that some important reasons about divergence in succession are related to extreme grazing and variety of land-use and agricultural activity in this area. The current vegetation has no economic benefit and also shows a disturbed landscape reminding accurate management of natural resources again.
Keywords: secondary succession, Beta diversity, unconstrained gradient analysis DCA, divergent pattern
7- Ziziphus spina Christi understanding of ecology perspective for managing watersheds in southern Iran (case study: fars - Darab)
R. Mahmoodi , A. A. Vali
Integrated watershed management to protect and improve the sponsor of soil and water resources are. Measures and management of biologically important and practical solutions towards an integrated watershed management is considered to. Using vegetation regardless of the circumstances and characteristics of something that went in vain and lead to waste of human and financial is. Drainage basins in southern Iran with regard to climate and geography and development edaphically species-specific vegetation management along with the target could be watershed management attention. Circumstances canopy extensive root of this plant and the plant resistance against drought stress, and economic and medicinal importance of these rates is native to southern Iran. The study in Darab city in Fars province was, and characterization of the ecological requirements include botanical characteristics, vegetative parts, how plants reproduce, the status of the soil texture, electrical conductivity, acidity, how to adapt, use and importance of the economy and how to how to protect soil and grazing by livestock was investigated. The results showed that this plant in soil with loam texture conduct electricity and the amount of acidity 5/7-7 5/3-2 grows. Average annual precipitation in the vegetative plant parts between 100 to 300 mm are. This plant with dense cover of rain and soil erosion by reducing wind speed helps prevent wind erosion. Overall we can conclude that, besides a way appropriate to revive and stabilize the soil and vegetation values for pastures south of Iran.
Keywords: lotus - Integrated Watershed Management - ecological needs - biological management - Darab .