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Volume 2, Issue 4 (2012)

Original Article

1- The Effects of Urbanization on Different Edaphic Factors
N.Susanta,R.Priyanka
Page 169-172

Abstract

Abstract
Soil is considered as the most important ecological component for terrestrial environment. In this paper an attempt was made to draw a relationship between different edaphic factors of soil namely, organic carbon, organic matter, pH and water holding capacity. The study revealed that these factors were interdepended and different from that of suitable amount in the present study areas and that was probably due to rapid and huge urbanization and deforestation.

Keywords: Organic carbon, water holding capacity, soil fertility.

2- The Cross River gorilla and large mammals species diversity in the in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape, Cameroon
N.Mbunya,L. Nkembi1,E.N.Alongamoh,N.Eno M.
Page 173-180

Abstract

Lebialem-Mone Forests Landscape is located in Western Cameroon and constitutes a transitional zone of rainforest and forest savannah. This study assessed large mammals’ diversity with focus on the Cross river gorilla and anthropogenic activities in the Lebialem-Mone Forest Landscape, Cameroon. A total of 36 transects of 4x4 km grid were surveyed. Relative density was estimated for mammal signs and human activities using DISTANCE. All data on large mammals were lumped together and encounter rates for each transect estimated for the determination of biodiversity hot spots. Spatial distribution maps were produced using geo-referenced relative densities that were imported into Arcview 3.2 for shape files production and finally into ArcGIS 9.2. This study documents the abundance and distribution of 7 species of large mammals including 2 great apes; Pan troglodytes elliotti and Gorilla gorilla diehli. The overall Relative Density of large mammals in the forest landscape was estimated to be 0.64 signs per km with high potential for great apes. The highest mean encounter rates for human activities in the study area were recorded for hunting. The findings of this survey indicate that the forest landscape lodges a fragile and important population of great apes and large mammals. The levels of hunting and agricultural activities eventually increase the pressure on the wildlife populations and the landscape.

Keywords: Cross River gorilla, Species diversity, Species density, Anthropogenic

3- Ecological Integrity of the Afadjato-Agumatsa Community Nature Reserve (AACNR) of Ghana after a Decade of Conservation
B.Y.Ofori,E.H. Owusu,D.K.Attuquayefio
Page 181-188

Abstract

Despite the general acceptance and wide promotion of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), the success of CBNRM remains debatable, as there is paucity of information on the effectiveness of this management approach. The ecological integrity of the Afadjato-Agumatsa Community Nature Reserve (AACNR) was assessed after a decade of community management. Vegetation cover changes and small mammals were used as bio-indicators. Time series satellite images of the AACNR showed significant increase in the forest cover and decreases in shrub, grass and build-up covers after a decade of conservation. A total of 3,360 trap-nights yielded 82 small mammal individuals belonging to two orders (Rodentia and Eulipotyphla) and two species, Praomys tullbergi (soft-furred rat) and olivieri (Olivier’s shrew), giving a trapping success of 5.5%. Praomys tullbergi formed about 98% of the total number of individuals, and recorded a relative abundance of 2.4%. Small mammals diversity at the AACNR was low (H’ = 0.119; D = 0.92). The absence of savanna species like Lemniscomys spp. (striped grass rats) and Mastomys spp. (multimammate rats) and the widespread and dominance of the forest species P. tullbergi, coupled with the changes in vegetation cover suggest that the forest ecosystem of the AACNR is of high ecological integrity.

Key words: Afadjato-Agumatsa community nature reserve, Community-based natural resource management, Forest ecosystem, Ghana, Small mammals

4- Contribution of Community Resource Management Areas (Cremas) To Conservation in Ghana.
S.J. Kumadoh,D. M.F. Bartlett
Page 189-195

Abstract

Ghana’s conservation philosophy dates from 1878 when colonial masters adopted Protected Areas for natural resource conservation (Sasu, 2004). Since then, Ghana has experienced several policy changes leading to the current 1994 Forest and Wildlife Policy. The implementation of conservation policies has met challenges including opposition from indigenous people deprived of access to natural resources. In 2000, the Wildlife Division of the Forestry Commission developed the Collaborative Wildlife Management Policy to address this (Ghana Wildlife Division, 2004) and the Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) approach was developed to involve communities in conservation initiatives (Ghana Wildlife Division, 2004). CREMAs have now been in existence for nine years but the contribution to conservation has not been objectively accessed. This paper sets out to rectify this and determine the achievements of CREMAs for wildlife conservation, the impact on livelihoods and the future potential of this approach.

Keywords: Conservation, Community, Ghana, CREMA, National Parks activities

5- Diversity, Utilization pattern and indigenous uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh (India)
P.Pooja,S.Pankaj,A.Ajit
Page 196-215

Abstract

Ghana’s conservation philosophy dates from 1878 when colonial masters adopted Protected Areas for natural resource conservation (Sasu, 2004). Since then, Ghana has experienced several policy changes leading to the current 1994 Forest and Wildlife Policy. The implementation of conservation policies has met challenges including opposition from indigenous people deprived of access to natural resources. In 2000, the Wildlife Division of the Forestry Commission developed the Collaborative Wildlife Management Policy to address this (Ghana Wildlife Division, 2004) and the Community Resource Management Area (CREMA) approach was developed to involve communities in conservation initiatives (Ghana Wildlife Division, 2004). CREMAs have now been in existence for nine years but the contribution to conservation has not been objectively accessed. This paper sets out to rectify this and determine the achievements of CREMAs for wildlife conservation, the impact on livelihoods and the future potential of this approach.

Keywords: Conservation, Community, Ghana, CREMA, National Parks activities

6- An Insight into the Physico-Chemical characteristics of Water and Soil along with Macrophyte Diversity in Kathgola Dighi: A Freshwater Wetland in Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal, India.
D.Shyamali,P.Sudin,P.D ebnath
Page 216-222

Abstract

In the present communication an attempt has been made to correlate the seasonal change of macrophytes diversity and physico-chemical characteristics of water and soil in Kathgola Dighi, Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. Diversity indices of 48 plant species and the regulatory effects of the four physico-chemical parameters of water and six soil parameters on the plant diversity were assessed. The macrophytes diversity, richness and evenness were high in monsoon but the dominancy was high in the months of mid summer and mid winter. The Euclidean distance of seasonal variation of macrophytes diversity and physico-chemical parameters of soil and water revealed that the wetland plants diversity were changed with the seasonal changes of physico-chemical parameters.

Keywords: Macrophyte diversity, Physico-Chemical characteristics, Kathgola Dighi, Diversity indices, Eucladian distance.

7- Effect of physiographic factors on the distribution of wild Almond (Amygdalusorientalis Mill) in west of Iran
M.Rasouli1, M.Javanmiri Pour
Page 223-229

Abstract

Habitat needs and requirement of important species in terms of distribution is necessary for natural resources management. Amygdalus orientalisis one of the forest species in west of Iran for food, industries and environmental protection in different climatic conditions.In this research, the effect of physiographic factors such as land form, aspect, altitude and slope on qualitative and quantitative characteristics as height, crown diameter, canopy cover, tree density, regeneration and vitality percent were studied. The results of this study showed: maximum height and crown diameter was observed in northern and eastern aspects. The maximum canopy cover and regeneration was seen in northern aspect, valleys and in altitudes 1700-1900 meters. The maximum tree number was observed in southern aspect, amplitude and valley land forms, in altitudes of 1700-1900 and 1900-2100 meters and in slops of 0-30 and 30-60%.The percentage of almond canopy coverage was 16%. The average percentage of herbaceous coverage was 8%. Almond trees of diameter per hectareat breast height >20 cm numbered 2while average number of almond trees were 11 per hectare. Almond seedlingsper hectare averaged 5. The numbers of other species per hectare were 4trees. Almond hasimportant socio-economic, ecologic and conservation roles in semi-arid areas, therefore it is essential to protect and restore Cheleh forests through participation by government and local people.

Keywords: quantitative, investigation, quality, coverage percentage,Chelehregion,Amygdalusorientalis

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