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Volume 3, Issue 1 (2013)

Original Article

1- Evaluation of the antifungal effects of rosemary oil and comparison with synthetic borneol and fungicide on the growth of Aspergillus flavus
M.Moghtader, H.Salari, A.Farahmand
Page 1-6


Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) with more than 240 active pharmacological and nutritional compounds is important from the botanical point of view. Pharmacological studies show the antifungal properties of Rosemary plant. The essential oil analyses of the aerial parts of rosemary collected from Kerman province were obtained using gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study of antifungal effects of the oil sample tested against strain of Aspergillus flavus (PTCC=5004) fungi by disc diffusion method via average inhibition zone. The results showed that yield of rosemary oil from kerman provience was 3.2% . Fourty-one compounds were identified in the essential oil concluded 99.74% of the total oil. The major components were α-pinene (15.52%), camphor (11.66%), verbenone (11.10%) and 1, 8-cineole (10.63%). The results showed essential oil from rosemary plant at 1, 1/2 and 1/4 oil dilutions exhibited strong antifungal activity than gentamycin antibiotic on Aspergillus flavus and exhibited moderate of borneol was at 10% dilution. Benomil fungicide at 10% dilution had no inhibitory effect on Aspergillus flavus. Large percentage antifungal activities of rosemary oil are related with α-pinene of monoterpens as the main compound.
Keywords: Rosmarinus officinalis L., essential oil, Aspergillus flavus, aflatoxin, borneol.

2- Response of Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev) Seedlings to Different Levels of N.P.K.Mg. ( Fertilizer Treatment
E.M.Isikhuemenand1, A.M.Ekhomun
Page 7-12


The growth and dry matter accumulation of Terminalia ivorensis (A. Chev.) seedlings given different doses of inorganic (N.P.K.Mg: 12. 12. 17. 2) Fertilizer were investigated using a Completely Randomized Block Design with 3 treatments (0kg/ha; 100kg/ha & 300kg/ha) and 4 replicates. At 16 Weeks After Planting (WAP), there were significant differences (p<0.05) between the control (0kg/ha), and 100kg/ha & 300kg/ha in respect of most variables measured - height; number of leaves; collar girth; number of nodes; leaf area; and number of branches. The results of dry matter accumulation recorded at 0kg/ha, 100kg/ha and 300kg/ha also recorded significant differences (p<0.05). While some results were not significantly different among the 100kg/ha & 300kg/ha treated plants, it is apparent that the applied doses of N.P.K.Mg ( fertilizer significantly enhanced the growth and dry matter accumulation of the seedling. It is recommended that the limit of the upper threshold of optimal growth performance, beyond which further application would be deleterious to the seedlings, be further investigated.
Keywords: Endemic Species, Seedlings, Soil Nutrients, Nursery, Plantation, Establishment.

3-Awareness and Perception of Urban Forestry among Urban Dwellers in Sahel Savannah Region of Nigeria
J.David Etim1, U. Agbaeze Umazi, I.N. Ufot
Page 13-20


Urban forestry and greening provides critical ecosystem services which contributes substantially to human health, livelihood and environmental quality. However, little is known about the level of awareness and perception of urban forestry among the urban dwellers of Sahel savannah region of Nigeria. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness and perception of urban forestry among urban dwellers in Maiduguri Metropolitan Council of Borno State located along the ecological zone of Sahel savannah of Nigeria and identifying key challenges faced by the urban dwellers concerned with provision of urban forest and greening of their environment .The survey was conducted using structured questionnaires distributed randomly to selected respondents. Descriptive statistical technique was used for analysis of the primary data. The result showed that majority of the respondents were male (64%) and 71.33% were married. The respondents are literate and had formal education (95.33%). Majority of them fall within the age bracket of 24-59 years (74%) and are students (44%). Furthermore, 68.67% of the sampled respondents are not aware of the concept of urban forestry and it importance. Poor funding (22.55%) of the urban forestry sector and poor enlightenment (16.85%) are believed to be the major constraints of urban forestry in the State. It is recommended that adequate enlightenment of the populace should be intensified in the area to dissuade the negative thought of the people about urban forestry in order to increase the environmental benefits provided by urban forestry.
Keywords: Urban Forestry, Development, Sahel Savannah region, Participation, Nigeria

4-Characterization of Microbial Community in Selected Mineral Soils after Long-Term Storage
Wolińska, Z. Stępniewska, A. Wołoszyn
Page 21-29


It is a common practice to store soil samples before measurements in a lab as an alternative to in-situ studies. Soil banks contain large variety of soil types, some of which may have a long shelf-life. Thus it is desirable to explore the effect of long-term storage on soil quality, particularly in terms of microbiological properties. Here, a 19-year storage period under air-dry conditions at 4ºC was selected for studying its effect on microbial presence and potential recovery after rewetting. The soil samples represented the top layer (0-30 cm) and had following FAO classifications: Mollic Gleysol, Eutric Cambisol, Rendzina Leptosol, Orthic Podzol and Eutric Fluvisol were used in the experiment. It was found that a 10 day incubation of aged soil under full water-capacity conditions and room temperature was sufficient for the microbial regeneration. Moisture content was determined for a range of water potentials (pF): 0, 1.5, 2.2 2.7 and 3.2, which represented different water availabilities for microorganisms and plant. It appeared that soil moisture content had significant effect (p<0.001) on the total number of bacteria and the most probable number (MPN) of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Molecular analysis (16S rRNA) showed the dominance of Betaproteobacteria genera with the main representatives of Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, Delftia, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, and exponent species of Firmicutes genera such as Clostridium and Ruminococcus.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene analysis, Soil water potential, Microorganisms abundance, Soil rewetting.

5-Biostatistics of Traditionally used Medicinal Plants of Almora District, Uttarakhand(India)
P.Kumari, G.C. Joshi, L.M. Tewari
Page 30-35


Diversity must be added to the list of factors - including species composition, disturbance regime, soil type and climate - that influence ecosystem functioning. The recent knowledge of the importance of biodiversity highlights an under-appreciated truth - although society is dependent on natural and managed ecosystems for goods and services that are essential for human survival, we know all too little about how ecosystems work. Almora district of Uttarakhand, India for the presence of plants of medicinal importance were used locally besides recorded in the ancient and modern texts. During the survey, 187 ethno medicinal plants have been studied. Clustering, Correlation and liner regression has been calculated, between the two variables i.e, number of diseases with number of plants with parts used. The correlation between number of diseases and number of plants with particular parts used is 0.9020. The value of correlation is 0.9020 and coefficient of variation is 0.3188. It indicates that there is high positive correlation between the two variables at 5% level of significances at 11 df. The value of regression coefficient is highly significant at 1% level of probability.
Keywords: Almora, Cluster, Correlation, Medicinal Plants

6-Air Pollution as an Environmental Hazard; a Case Study of Karna Basti Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Anwar, M. Ahmed, F.Asghar
Page 36-42


Air pollution has now been one of the major problems faced by every country of the world. This is because increase in the production and use of fossil fuels in many ways e.g. industrial revolution, rapid increase in urban population results in the increase in urban transport which ultimately pollute the environment. Many cities around the world, particularly in developing countries, are experiencing rapid growth. Larger cities with highly concentrated industry, intensive transport networks and high population density are threats to urban environment. More people, more industry, and more motor vehicles cause ever-worsening air pollution which poses serious environmental threat in many cities. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international agencies have long identified urban air pollution as a critical public health problem. The study focused on major pollutants from different sources and impact of pollutants on human health. The study provides links between air pollution and human health. Investigation finds out a complete scenario of air pollution of the study area and the research also helpful for discussing about the importance of green spaces in maintain the urban sustainability. How urban green spaces are helping in decreasing air pollutants level in the atmosphere. Increasing human activities in urban arena means higher demand for energy, goods and services in one side, and more emission and material wastes on the other.
Keywords: Air Pollution, Ecosystem, Environmental Hazard, Human Health, Pollutant, Urban Environment.

7-The role of Pelophylax ridibunda (Marsh frogs) in food chain, northern provineces of Iran
F.Molavi, M.Gohari, S.Pashaee Rad, K.Haji Gholi, M.Yazdanpanahi
Page 43-47


Among Anuras, Pelophylax ridibunda has great interest in living in farms and fields. This species can always be seen in the vast areas of rice fields ,particularly in North of Iran. Therefore, they have always been important because of their close relationship with crops there is a debate as whether these animals can be used as biological pest control in the fields?
So that, the type and method of their nutrition is specifically important from the perspective of agriculture and conservation of natural resources.
This study is an attempt to investigate the diet of Pelophylax ridibundas around Caspian Sea and its effect on pest control in rice fields. For achieving this aim, 112 samples were collected from 14 stations in the North of Iran between 2009- 2010. After being hunted, they were anesthetized and got an injection of formalin in their stomachs. Then all the samples were moved to laboratory, and after being coded, they were fixed. Their stomach contents were removed and identified. The results indicated that the frequency of these animals is the only factor determining their nutrition kind. It is also indicated that females eat more plants and have a stronger tendency toward cannibalism These characteristics of Pelophylax ridibunda leave no doubt that they are one of the natural pest controls that can regulate the frequency of pests in the fields.
Keywords: Anuras,Nutrition,Iran,Rana ridibunda

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