1-The comparison of the natural stands quantitative characteristics in anaged and non-managed areas in Iran’s north forests
In this consideration the natural forest stands in managed and non-managed areas in Iran’s North forest were studied from the view point of quantitative characteristics. Inventory was done by random systematic method and with a net of 112×112 meters dimensions with sample pieces of 500 square meters. In each sample piece the quantitative characteristics of breast height sections Basal Area(B.A) and the number of trees in a hectare were considered. T-tese was used for testing the significant difference among parameters’ quantitative means in the two areas the results of this study showed that from the view point of quantitative characteristics among Basal Area in hectare and the number in hectare in the two Managed and non-managed areas a significant difference exists.
Keywords: Quantitative characteristics, Natural forest, North of Iran
2- Distribution of soil organisms in spent engine oil contaminated soils of Owerri agricultural zone Imo State.
C.Udebuani, E. U. Onweremadu, L.Allison-Onyechere
The distribution of soil microorganisms in spent engine oil polluted soil was investigated using the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of the soil. Random soil sampling was used in field collection of soil samples. Data collected from these parameters were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The physicochemical properties of the soil showed increase in moisture content (14.90.01) (13.80.1), bulk density (1.390.07)(1.250.02), and decrease in soil porosity (51.320.17), in polluted soil compared to the unpolluted soil (53.01.0). Results of the chemical properties of the soil showed decrease in soil pH of 5.1 (on the average), increase in organic carbon (5.3)(1.8), decrease in percentage Nitrogen (0.104)(0.296) and phosphorous (20.9 vex 26.6 meq/100g) in polluted compared to unpolluted. Microbial counts of spent engine oil polluted soil showed decrease in microbial population at two weeks, increase in microbial counts in four weeks, and decrease again at six weeks. Nine Genera of Bacteria and Fungi were isolated from polluted soil sample, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp, Alcaligenes, Klebsiella sp and Bacillus Subtellus and fungi sp include Aspergillus flarus, Rhizopus sp, candida sp and fusarium sp. Among the bacteria and fungi species isolated, Bacillus subcutillus and Bacillus sp these organisms were associated with hydrocarbon ultilisers. Keywords: Soil organisms, Owerri agricultural zone, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp, Alcaligenes
3-Distribution Status and Abundance of Himalayan Pheasant Species of Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India- an Ecological Conservation Approach
M.Shah Hussain, A.Sultana
Studies were conducted in 23 oak patches of Kumaon Himalaya, India to know the distribution status and abundance of rare pheasant species. Existing forest trails were used to monitor the pheasants in premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons for three years. Call counts were also used to determine presence / absence of the vocal species. Five pheasant species were documented from the surveyed region i.e. Whitecrested Kalij which was found at 14 sites out of 23 sites between the altitude range from 1660 - 2550m. Koklass was found to be most abundant and widely distributed among all the pheasant species found in Kumaon. The species was sighted or / heard at 15-20 at sites between the altitudinal range from 1830 - 3180m. Cheer pheasant was found to be the most threatened species among all pheasants and was encountered at two sites only between 2300- 2520m altitude range. Himalayan Monal was seen between the altitude range from 2520-3300m and was encountered at four sites. Satyr Tragopan was seen at three locations in Kumaon with few encounters between the altitude range from 2280-3140m. Herb richness, diversity and grass diversity were the abundance predictors of Kalij abundance whereas Koklass preferred disturbed habitat. These results are discussed in the light of conservation of these species.
Keywords: Endemic Species, Seedlings, Soil Nutrients, Nursery, Plantation, Establishment.
4-Loss of Diversity of Some Medicinal Plants in Achanakmar Sanctuary, Chhattisgarh, India
S. Dhuria, A. K. Singh
Achanakmar Sanctuary (557.55 km2 of forest area) was surveyed to study the loss of diversity of medicinal plants. Before a decade back this area was known as germplasm but after getting the knowledge, importance and economic value of a particular species of a medicine much exploitation has been done. Due to severe exploitation as study envisages the number of species found endangered from above four study sites. The species are Rauwolfia serpentina, Gloriosa superva, Dioscorea floribunda, and Zeranium species. So far heavy demand and supply is concerned the area should be fully protected and conserved through in- situ and ex-situ conservation strategy for remaining species of medicinal plants.
Keywords: Achanakmar sanctuary, medicinal plants, ex-situ conservation, exploitation
5-Reduce Nitrate pollution in underground waters with Using of the effect of Spraying Urea and Boric Acid Fertilizers
khazaeipool, B. moradi, M. khazaei pool, A. khazaeipool
The high value of Nitrate in drinking water is a reason for0020changing Hemoglobin in children under 6 months and also out breaking other microbial diseases in all ages. Nitrate pollution occurs when the composition exceeds the value absorbed by the plants in the soil. Achieving this aim, which is the artificial nutrition of the sapling, is of high importance. That is because proper nutrition would decrease the time left to the grafting, saving money, decreasing the timing to produce the sapling presentable to the market. Moreover, applying too much fertilizer using the Spraying leaf Method would be prevented. In the meanwhile, Nitrogen would play a pivotal role in various kinds of citrus and sour orange. In study Urea fertilizer solution is sprayed in 4 level (0‚2‚5 and 10 in 1000) twice per month and Boric Acid in 4 level (0‚2‚3and 5 in 1000) once a month. The statistical analysis used was CRD with three replication .Factors including stem thickness‚ sapling height and The indicator of leaf surface Nitrogen and Boron concentration in leaves are measured and analyzed by MSTATC software. The results obtained from this study showed that using Urea fertilizer on height, leaf surface, Nitrogen and Boron value in the leaf has become statistically meaning full.
Keywords: Urea, Boric Acid, Sour Orange, Nitrate pollution
6-Carbon storage in sacred groves- A Study from Chanderbadni sacred grove in Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India
N.A. Pala, A. K. Negi, K. K. Vikrant, Y.Gokhale, N. P. Todaria
Chanderbadni sacred grove located in temperate zone (1850-2245m asl) in Tehri district of Garhwal Himalaya was studied to assess biomass and carbon stock estimation. The study was preliminary and aimed to make recommendations for different protocols and management authorities to include these types of forests in a class of viable carbon offset projects. Tree density observed was 688 trees ha-1, whereas total carbon density and total biomass density calculated were 587.190Mgha-1 and 1159.900Mgha-1. Highest tree density was calculated for Quercus leucotrichophora, while highest biomass and carbon density was observed for Cedrus deodara. Highest growing stock volume density (154.16±42.78) was also observed for Cedrus deodara, whereas lowest growing stock volume density (3.46±0.63) was calculated was for Swida Macrophylla. Keywords:Carbon storage ,Garhwal Himalaya
7- Influence of anthropogenic pressure on regeneration status of for-est species along a river transect in Sub-Montane Himalayan region
S.Shah, A.Tewari, A.K.Srivastava, A.Vermaa
For studying the influence of anthropogenic pressure on regeneration of forest species total 12 forest stands perpendicular to a river course were selected. The study site was severely impacted by anthropogenic disturbances. In the stands complete dominance by any one species was lacking except one stand where sal (Shorea robusta) species grew pure. In the present study the tree and sapling diversity was low in the stands located near the river bed with high anthropogenic disturbance. As the distance between the riverbed and stands increases the diversity increased. Similar pattern was also observed with the species richness. Richness increases on the stands which are far away from the riverbed with comparatively low anthropogenic disturbances. In the study area the regeneration of non-fodder species like Mallotus phillipensis had batter regeneration than good fodder species. Keywords: Richness, Density, Diversity
Keywords: Richness, Density, Diversity.