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Volume 3, Issue 3 (2013)

Original Article

1-A mathematical model to eliminate the traffic pollution with phytoremediation method and base on neural network
Malekzadeh, S. Kardar, K. Saeb
Page 98-103


In this research a three-part mathematical model for eliminate the traffic
air pollution by phytoremediation method based on root growth and
death of plants in the system is presented. The model components are
based on parameters with different volumes that each has first order
determine degradation coefficient. When root moves in the soil, the soil
placed in the layers cycle close to the roots (rhizosphere), the root death
zone and of soil zone. So however in this model it assumed that the
contamination is without moving and fixed but considering that the
roots will penetrate in the soil, soil is closest to the rhizosphere.
Therefore in this research to consider the root growth, the model is
included the spatial grows (grows exponentially with the depth) and
temporal growth (the sinusoidal variation with time). Neural network
method used to set up and determine the model coefficient. In this
regards used from soil contaminant data during 10 years in 4 research
site besides Tehran highways.
KEYWORDS: Tehran highways, Neural network, Mathematical model,
Phytoremediation, Traffic pollution, Rhizosphere, Environment

2-Canopy Management In Lac Cultivation for Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Livelihood Support
N. Divakara, K. K. Sharma
Page 104-111


Lac, a resinous exudation of female scale insects, mainly Indian lac insect
Kerria lacca Kerr (Tachardiidae: Coccoidea: Homoptera), is an important source
of income for the forest dwellers in South Asian countries like India, Thailand,
Indonesia, Myanmar and Vietnam. Lac insects thrive on more than 400 planthosts
generally growing in the forests which have varied economic, medicinal
and social significance. Association of 22 species of predators, 30 species of
primary and 45 species of secondary parasites; besides several fungal pathogens
with 88 species of lac insect, represent a rich bio-diversity of the lac ecosystem.
Lac cultivation requires proper host plant management, especially canopy
management to increase biomass for higher productivity. Alternatively,
multistory lac cropping by growing mixed but compatible plants having different
heights on the same area also provides exciting opportunities of optimum land
utilization. Flemingia macrophylla, a multi-purpose bushy plant, has evolved as
a potential lac host in the process of exploring suitable hosts with short gestation
period and low crown for intensive lac cultivation to overcome the problems of
long gestation period, scattered distribution and high crown associated with
traditional tree hosts like Kusum (Schleichera oleosa), Palas (Butea
monosperma) and Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana). The experiment on this plant was
conducted under canopies of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. in aghani (winter), jethwi
(summer) crop of kusmi and katki (rainy) season of rangeeni strain of the lac
insect. Survival rate of F. macrophylla was 96% and 100% under control and
experimental conditions with 4.41, and 2.77 average numbers of shoots
respectively. Mean plant height of F. macrophylla was 60 % more in control
(237.46 cm) than understory (141.87 cm). After 75 days of inoculation, density
of settlement was higher under control (45.71/cm2, 16.2/cm2) than in understorey
(38.05/cm2, 13.5/cm2) for aghani, and katki crop respectively. Whereas, in
jethwi crop the scenario was reverse with under-storey (99.9/cm2) having higher
than control (82.9/cm2). Sex ratio at 45 days of inoculation was higher in understorey
in aghani (13:95 M: F/cm2), jethwi (20:81 M: F/cm2) whereas in katki
crop it was higher in control (14:84 M: F/cm2). Lac cell weight after larval
emergence was higher in control for all lac crops; aghani (0.02012 g), jethwi
(0.0152 g) and katki (0.0313 g) with 307, 262.4 and 315 insects respectively.
The average ‘scrap lac’ yield in control was 166.64 g/plant, 105.36 g/plant,
81.47 g/plant which is 2.6, 3.8, 4.7 times to that in under-storey (63.63 g/plant,
27.58g/plant, 17 g/plant) respectively for these lac crop. Experimental results
revealed that though there was significant reduction in the scrap lac yield, lac
cultivation is feasible on F. macrophylla in under-storey with host-plant
management and improving lighting conditions. With proper canopy
management, there is potential of increasing not only its economic viability, but
also ecological development via Joint Forest Management through peoples’
participation in resource generation, management and sharing of benefits. It has
potential to arrest deforestation, conserve associated biodiversity and permit
gainful utilization of vast natural wealth.
KEYWORDS: Lac, Aghani, Jethwi, Katki, Flemingia Macrophylla,
Dalbergia Sissoo, Kerria Lacca.

3- Effects of Bio-stimulators on fenugreek (TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRACUM L.) under drought stress for decrease chemical fertilizers application
Mohammdi,H. Omidi,A. Mehrafarin, H. A. Naghdi Badi
Page 112-115


To investigate the effects of drought stress and chemical fertilizer and biostimulators
on yield and some quantitative characteristics of Trigonella foenumgracum,
a factorial experiment was conducted on the basis of completely
randomized blocks design with three replicates in Department of Cultivation and
Development, Institute of Medicinal Plants, ACECR in Karaj, Iran in 2011.
Treatment included drought stress with levels of non stress (40%FC), average
stress (55%FC) and Severe stress (70%FC) and fertilizer with levels control (A),
aminolforte (B), Fosnutren (C), kadostim (D), humiforte(E), humiforte+50%
(NPK)(F), humiforte+100% (NPK)(G). Results showed that effect of fertilizer
×drought stress was significant (P≤0.01) on parameters of chlorophyl, plant
height , petiole length, Root fresh weight, Root dry weight, total seeds fresh
weight, total seeds dry weight, seeds thousand weight, the number of seeds per
pod. So that was the most chlorophyll, petiole length, number of seeds per pod
related to the combination treatment Fosnutren with non stress and most plant
height, root dry weight, root fresh weight, seed dry weight related to the
combination treatment humiforte+100% (NPK) with severe stress and most
seeds fresh weight related to the combination treatment humiforte+100% (NPK)
with average stress and most seeds thousand weight related to the combination
treatment kadostim with severe stress .
KEYWORDS: Fenugreek; Biostimulators; Drought stress; Chemical

4-Ecological Evaluation of Miangaran Wetland of Iran for Conservation Approaches
M. Hosseini ,G. Ahmadpour ,M. Afkhami
Page 116-125


Miangaran Wetland is located in Khuzestan province of Iran .Its area is
about 2240 hectares and its elevation is 826 meters above sea level and
its depth is 5.18 meters. It is including suitable lands for agriculture
around, and the existence of the endemic species population such as
turtles, birds, fishes and snakes. It has an important ecological and
economical role in the region. Every year, about 130000 birds such as
Fulica atra, Marmaronetta angustirostris, Aythya ferina, Egretta
garzetta, Anas querquedula, and so on immigrate to this region.
Considering the great importance of this ecosystem from point of view
of different aspects, it is necessary to take this region under conservation
and support. Therefore, there must be a general evaluation in order to
determine whether this wetland can be considered as a conservative
region or not. This study is based on an ecological evaluation to take
into account Miangaran Wetland as a protected area. This research was
performed using three standard methods including: IUCN, IMO,SALM
& PRICE methods and the reformed method from Canada conservation
organization. In this ecological evaluation, the used methods were
including three criteria: The life conservation values, the socio-cultural
values, and productive values of wetland. Each criterion has some
subdivisions. According to the questions presented in each criterion and
the answers required, we can determine whether each criterion exists or
not and its level of importance from the national, provincial, regional
and local point of view will be made clear and also the potential and
capability of the wetland will be announced in order to be taken under
conservation. Thus, having done a survey and field visit and collecting a
series of maps to make the task easier, the data was collected. The
results of several sections showed importance of this wetland. After
answering the questions, Miangaran Wetland was considered as a
protection capable region by obtaining more than sixty percent of the
level of importance of criterion and the existence of more than three
criteria in each value.
KEYWORDS: wetland, ecological evaluation, conservation, IUCN, IMO,

5-Effects of the Height and Geographical Aspects on Potential of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Kermanshah (Iran
Kh. Mahdavi ,A. Choupanian
Page 126-130


Main phenomenon of climate change that is harmful for human being, increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Regarding to the potential of carbon storage in soil and plant tissues, this approach has a serious interest in recent decades. Due to the different climate zones in IRAN, share and amount of carbon sequestration in any of these areas need more contemplation. Therefore, the ability of soil carbon sequestration of mountain pastures in Kermanshah Province was studied in 3 height and 4 geographical aspects. Then, soil samples were taken from the areas that Astragalus Gossypinus and Astragalus Parrowianus grew at two depths of 0-30cm and 30-60cm. The amount of organic carbon, bulk density, electrical conductivity, pH, moisture content and soil texture in both depths of each soil profile were measured. Stepwise regression results also showed that texture parameters, bulk density and pH, respectively, were the most important factors affecting on soil organic carbon. Based on the results of data analysis using a completely randomized factorial design, significant differences were observed at 1% significance level between the two species and also in height between the classes and geographical aspect on soil carbon sequestration rates.Comparison of results based on SNK tests also indicates that, biggest amount of carbon sequestration taking place in the maximum height in the geographic north aspect. Also according to the results can be stated that capability of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Astragalus Parrowianus is more than Astragalus Gossypinus.
KEYWORDS: Carbon Sequestration, Astragalus, Soil, Mountain Rangelands, Kermanshah.

6-The effect of trees diameter on establishment, diversity and richness of Bracket  fungi in Golestan province forest, North of Iran
Rostamian ,M.R. Kavosi
Page 131-136


In forest ecosystems, organism biodiversity in ecosystem cycle is attentioned for
forest and genetic resources preservation. Presences and diversity of bracket
fungi have an important role as an important dissociating factor of wood in the
forest. The aim of this study is considering of the effect of trees diameter on
establishment, diversity and richness of bracket fungi. Two transects with a
width of 50 meters had conducted randomly in the district level, in educational
and research of Shastkolateh forest. And all stand and fallen trees bearing
bracket fungi were considered. Results indicated that fungi establishment
increased by increasing the trees diameters, and the stand trees with more than
80m diameter and fallen trees with more than 40m diameter have more bracket
fungi than other trees. The consideration of richness with margalef index,
indicated the most richness in diameter class > 80cm of stand trees and 40cm of
fallen trees. The examination of relationship of host trees diameter class with
bracket fungi diversity indicated that there is significant difference between
diameter class and bracket fungi diversity in 99% reliance level, comparison of
bracket fungi diversity in stand and fallen trees characterized that there is
significant difference between bracket fungi diversity in stand and fallen trees.
Also it is characterized that in fallen trees, bracket fungi diversity is more than
that of stand trees. That one of its causes is the quality of woods, which this
fungi diversity increased by increasing the decaying and disintegrating.
KEYWORDS: diameter, bracket fungi, diversity, richness and fungi

7-Diversity and Frequency of Wildlife in Association with Different Ranges Condition on the Bijar Protected, Western Iran
Hosseini , N. Safaian , M. Shokri , J. Ghorbani ,A. Imani
Page 137-143


Due to human pressures, living organisms in natural landscapes are in a
critical condition. Protected areas are the last refuges to protect and
maintain biodiversity.This research study assessed and monitored
vegetations and wildlife within three secure locations 1:(C-poor
condition) 2:(S-good condition), 3:(G- fair condition) of Bijar protected
area in the west of Iran over 31000 ha.To study of vegetations 10
transects were established in each area, Pasture Value (PV) method was
used to determine ranges condition.Data of seven seasons(summer and
winter) were collected and used to evaluate wildlife condition.To
compare means of rangelands factors include: Rangelands
condition,vegetation cover,diversity and richness Analysis of variance
was used and to compare wildlife frequency,diversity and richness
Kruskal-Wallis Test was used. The results of rangelands show that,
Shanonn-winer diversity index, species richness and evenness in fair
rangeland are greater than the two other rangelands.The results of
wildlife study during the study period showed that diversity index
(Shannon-Weiner) and wildlife frequency were greater in fair
rangelands.Wild sheep and Boar frequency on fair rangelands were
higher than the two othere areas and had significant difference among
the three areas.Ghamchogha secure location with fair condition was
consider as a better habitate for wildlife.
KEYWORDS: Biodiversity, wildlife, range condition, protect area,

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