Home / Volume 3 (2013) / Volume 3, Issue 4 (2013)

Volume 3, Issue 4 (2013)

Original Article

1- Water use, growth and yields of irrigated plantain in Southwest Nigeria
A. O. Akinro , A. A. Olufayo, P. G. Oguntunde, M. O. Olaniyi
Page 144-153


Field experiments were carried out for three years to investigate the productivity
response of plantain (musa paradisiaca L. spp, AAB Subgroup) cultivar
Agbagba to water application via low gravity drip irrigation system. There were
four treatments and four replicates based on the level of water application as
follows: no deficit irrigation, T100, (i.e maintained at near field capacity or 100%
available water); 50% deficit irrigation, T50, (i.e maintained at 50% available
water); 75% deficit irrigation, T25, (i.e maintained at 25% available water) and
the control treatment, T0, which represented rainfed cropping system.
Supplemental irrigation had significant effect (p<0.05) on biomass yield.
Estimated water consumed ranged from 900 mm to 1700 mm from planting to
harvest depending on the level of irrigation treatment. Growth in the T100
treatment was enhanced than other treatments. For example, stem height was
256 cm to 202 cm in T0. Results also showed that plantain biomass and bunch
yields were significantly different in irrigated treatments as compared to T0.
Average biomass yields of T100 were 23.2 and 24.4 tha-1 for 2006-2007 and
2007-2008 seasons respectively and the fresh bunch yield (which is the principal
yield component of plantain with commercial value) for T100 were 10.2 and 12.9
tha-1 in contrast to 3.9 and 4.4 tha-1 for T0 treatment for the two seasons. These
results showed that plantain yields respond significantly to irrigation.
KEYWORDS: Supplementary Irrigation; Water Deficit; Available Water;
Rainfed Cropping; Growth And Yield.

2- Survival, Growth and Mineral Accumulation in Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis L.) Seedling Irrigated with Water Treatment Effluent
B. Selahvarzi, M. Akbarinia , S. M. Hosseini
Page 154-162


The effect of water treatment effluent on seedling survival and growth in Plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) was studied. This research carried out at the site near to the Eastern Tehran water treatment plant in which seedling were implanted in three score rows and after measuring primary dimension, seedling were irrigated with water treatment effluent, well water and mix water (50% well water + 50% water treatment effluent) from April 2010 to October 2010. Three replications were considered for each of score rows. Survival and growth parameters of seedling with selection three randomize samples from each treatment in periodic form (in each two month one time) to the end of growth season were measured at the end of the growth season. Observation included seedling height, collar diameter and survival. Application of water treatment effluent and mix water produced same growth, survival and biomass productivity as well water at this period of time.
KEYWORDS: effluent, green space, growth, irrigation, plantation

3- The effect of forage removal height on assimilate redistribute in barley cultivars of dual-purpose
S. F. Ghorabi, M. Alavi Fazel ,Sh. Lack
Page 163-168


A trial study was set to investigate the effect of forage removal height on
assimilateredistribute in barley cultivars of dual-purpose.A factorial experiment
was assigned as a randomized completed block design with four replications in
Hamidiye at southwestern Ahvazin 2011-2012. Forage treatments were included
at height cutting at 5, 10, 15 centimeter stem cutting above the soil surface at the
beginning of stem elongation at growth steps 30 and 31 of Zadux (5-6 fix) and
no cutting (control) and three barley cultivars including Jenoob, 10 serasari
(Zahak), and Nimrooz. The obtained results showed that by cutting more parts of
the crop, remobilization, remobilization share, current photosynthesis, and grain
yield decreased and the share of current photosynthesis and the yield of dry
forage increased. The highest amounts of grain yield (3614.58 kgha-1),
remobilization (86.84g/m2), remobilization share (24.42%), and current
photosynthesis (274.61g/m2) belonged to the treatment with no cutting (control)
and the highest yield of dry forage (3607.58 kgha-1) and current photosynthesis
share (80.46%) belonged to the forage cutting height of 5 cm above the soil
surface. Among the barley cultivars, 10 serasari (zahak) cultivar had the highest
grain yield (3742.37 kgha-1), remobilization (72.51g/m2), current photosynthesis
(302.97 g/m2), and current photosynthesis share (80.47%); however, the Jenoob
cultivar had the highest yield of dry forage (2558/81 kgha-1), and remobilization
share (24.49%). In general, 10 serasari (Zahak) cultivar, in the treatment of no
cutting had the highest grain yield and Nimrooz cultivar at cutting height of 5
cm above the soil surface had the highest yield of dry forage.
KEYWORDS: cutting height, green fodder, grain yield, barley cultivars,

4-Nest site characteristics and nest diversity of Ciconiidae (Anastomus oscitans), Phalacrocoracidae (Phalacrocorax niger) and Ardeidae (Nycticorax nycticorax, Bubulcus ibis) in the Kulik bird sanctuary, Raiganj, West Bengal, India
A.K.Pramanik , K.B.Santra , C. K. Manna
Page 169-176


Birds of Kulik bird sanctuary, Raiganj, west Bengal, India were studied from April to December in the year 2007 and 2008, based on observational methods. In this study, the nesting characteristics and nest diversity of birds mainly Ciconiidae (Open billed stork: Anastomus oscitans ), Phalacrocoracidae (Little cormorant: Phalacrocorax niger), Ardeidae (Night heron: Nycticorax nycticorax, Cattle egret: Bulbulcus ibis), were investigated. Every year large number of these birds come in this sanctuary only for breeding purpose in large number. The arrival time of these birds of Phalacrocoracidae and Ardeidae families was 2nd week of the month of April and last week of May in the family Ciconiidae. It was found that the site of breeding colony of these birds in the sanctuary had 645 trees, consisting of Lagerstoemia speciosa (284), Barringtonia acurangula (73),Trewia nudiflora (113), Bambusa tulda (15) and others(160). Bambusa tulda tree was more preferred for nest site selection of Night Heron, Little cormorants and Cattle Egret, whereas Barringtonia acutangula, Streblus asper and Lagerstoemia speciosa trees were important for nest site selection of Open-billed Stork. Among these plant species maximum number of nests of Open-billed Stork (34.85% and 35%) were built on the tree Lagerstoemia speciosa, in this sanctuary in the year 2007 and 2008 respectively. Studies have shown that, Herons can live in a mixed colony due to breeding success even when there is insufficient nesting place available. Open-billed stork sometimes built their nest together with other birds like egrets, herons and cormorants in the core region of the sanctuary. Cormorants frequently built their nests in mixed colonies with egret and stork. It was noticed that the population of egrets, herons and cormorants were more abundance in the core region than the buffer but the stork population were seen both in the core region as well as buffer region as they can tolerate human interference. However, this study shows that, together with open-billed stork, little cormorant, night heron and cattle egret reproduce in mixed colonies in the Kulik bird sanctuary.
KEYWORDS: Kulik bird sanctuary, nest diversity, Ciconiidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Ardeidae

5-The effect of two Traditional Forest Management Practices on the vertical and horizontal forest structure in Northern Zagros Forest (Case study: Oak forest)
M. Haidari,S. Zabiholahii ,M. Namiranian ,N. Mostafa Soltani , N. Shabanian ,L. Ghahramani
Page 177-186


Forest structure includes vertical (number of tree layers) and horizontal features.
This study was carried out to determine the effect of two traditional forest
management practices (i.e. Armardeh and Havareh Khol pattern) on the vertical
and horizontal forest structure. Havareh khol village (prune at the ground level)
and Armardeh or Blake village (prune tree crowns) were selected. In this study
60 circle sample plots (500 m2) were collected in each site by randomizedsystematic
method in the 200×300 Net. In every sample plot the position of tree,
kind of species, diameter at breast height (cm), height (m), crown height (m) and
two diameters of crown were recorded. In each village conventional territory
Vertical and horizontal of this forest showed in the one sample (50×50 m, 0.25
hectare). To analysis of horizontal structure (spatial pattern), used was made of
the quadrat method. Data analyzing was done bySPSS16, SVS (Stand
Visualization System) and Ecological Methodological software’s. Results
showed Havareh Khol forest has two story and Quercus libani Olivlocated in the
over story, but in Blake forest Quercus libani Oliv and Quercus infectoria Oliv
was inover story and this forest has two stories. Spatial pattern (horizontal
structure) of Havare khol forest was clumped pattern but horizontal structure of
Blake forest was uniform to random pattern. Overall results showed that Havare
Khol traditional forest management practice has less negative effect on forest
structure but lack of large (i.e. 30 t50 cm) and very large (50 cm) diameter
classes but Armardeh pattern can regulate diameter distributions as uneven-aged
old stands system and could not support forest regeneration and reduced the
young tree. Authors suggested approaching the sustainable forest management
used the compact of two traditional forest management practices (Armardeh and
Havare Khol Pattern).
KEYWORDS: Blake forest, Havareh khol forest, forest structure, horizontal
structure, vertical structure, spatial pattern, Zagros forest.

6-A Study of Changes in Lead Concentrations in Soils in the Andimeshk - Shoosh Highway Margin
E. Panahpour ,K. Jafari ,A. Gholami
Page 187-190


Lead from Vehicle Fuels as the Most Important and the Largest Source of Environmental Pollution.Given the daily increasing global pollution and with regard to the stability of heavy metals in soil and their devastating effects on the ecosystems, this research was conducted on Lead pollution in Andimeshk - Shoosh Highway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of Lead in the soil. In this regard, three stations including Andimeshk, Azadi town and Shoosh were selected. At each station, soil sampling was performed in three replications from distances of 15, 50 and 100 meters from the margin of the road and depths of 0-15 cm. Values for pH, lime percentage, organic matter, CEC, soil texture and absorbable concentration of Lead were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results indicated that the Lead concentrations decreased with taking distance from the margin of the road. The mean Leadconcentrations at 15, 50 and 100 meters were measured 3.01,2.29and2.04(μg/kg), respectively. Moreover, the results showed that the concentrations of Lead declined from Andimeshk to Shoosh so that the mean Lead concentrations in Andimeshk, Azadi town and Shoosh stations were 2.49, 2.24and2.45 (μg/kg), respectively.
Keywords: Lead, Absorbable Concentration of Lead, Andimeshk, Azadi Town, Shoosh, Highway Margin.

7-Vegetation analysis in the habitats of koklass pheasant
A. Shah,M. Siddique Awan,M. Sayed Khan,R. Aziz Minhas,K. Saeed
Page 191-201


In this paper we analyzed the vegetation of Koklass pheasant habitats in Kalam
Conservancy. To know about the parameters of the research the study area was
divided into three zones on the basis of grazing disturbance of livestock, the high
disturbed site, the less disturbed site and undisturbed site. The overall vegetation
analysis of the three sites confirm the statements of previous work, because all
sites contain coniferous trees, broadleaf trees, shrub density and maximum
number of herbs.
KEYWORDS: koklass pheasant, Kashmir, Habitat, species.

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