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Volume 4, Issue 1 (2014)

Original Article

1- Tree diversity changes over a decade (2003-2013) in four inland tropical dry evergreen forest sites on the Coromandel Coast of India
E. Pandian , N. Parthasarathy
Page 1- 18

Abstract

Forest tree diversity inventory and its periodical monitoring are important to understand the changes in tree population structure and diversity status of forest and to provide information useful for biodiversity conservation and reserve management. In a long-term forest environmental monitoring program in Indian tropical dry evergreen forest, this communication deals with tree diversity changes happened at the first decadal interval. The initial inventory of tree diversity was carried out in 2003, in four tropical dry evergreen forest sites-(much disturbed sites Shanmuganathapuram- SP and Araiyapatti - AP and moderately disturbed sites - Karisakkadu - KR and Maramadakki- MM) on the Coromandel Coast of peninsular India, by establishing four 1-ha permanent plots, one in each site. In 2013, the four plots were re-inventoried for tree diversity changes which yielded 56 species from 46 genera and 26 families. Tree species richness over a decade increased by four species in site SP, two species in site AP, and one species in site KR, but decreased by one species in site MM. Tree density decreased drastically in ten-year interval by 480 (28.92%) and 102 (12.63%) stems ha-1 respectively in sites SP and AP, but moderately increased by 82 (12.09%) stems ha-1 in site KR and 26 (3.46%) stems ha-1 in site MM. Tree basal area declined in site KR from 21.6 m2 to 20.26 m2 ha-1 and in site SP from 21.1 to 20.38 m2 ha-1, but increased from 19.1 m2 to 19.43 m2 and from 15.5 to 18.63 m2 ha-1 in sites AP and MM respectively. Totally three species (Allophyluss erratus, Maytenus imarginata and Ehretia pubescens) were lost out of the 57 species recorded in 2003, and two species (Jatropha gossypiifolia and Streblus asper) were new additions when inventoried after ten years. During the census interval (2003-2013), the total aboveground biomass decreased by 5.9% in site KR and 4.8% in site SP whereas in site MM and AP, it increased by 24.6% and 7.7% respectively.The long-term forest monitoring data will be valuable to understand forest dynamics and for conservation and management of this and similar tropical forests.
Keywords: Aboveground biomass, Human disturbance, Decadal change, Permanent plot, Re-census, Tree species density, Tropical dry evergreen forest.

2- Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil, Leaf and Fruit of, Malus domestica, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Pyrus communis Trees around A Zinc Factory in Zanjan, Iran
F. Heidari , S. M. Hosseini , N. Bahramifar
Page 19-25

Abstract

Forest tree diversity inventory and its periodical monitoring are important to understand the changes in tree population structure and diversity status of forest and to provide information useful for biodiversity conservation and reserve management. In a long-term forest environmental monitoring program in Indian tropical dry evergreen forest, this communication deals with tree diversity changes happened at the first decadal interval. The initial inventory of tree diversity was carried out in 2003, in four tropical dry evergreen forest sites-(much disturbed sites Shanmuganathapuram- SP and Araiyapatti - AP and moderately disturbed sites - Karisakkadu - KR and Maramadakki- MM) on the Coromandel Coast of peninsular India, by establishing four 1-ha permanent plots, one in each site. In 2013, the four plots were re-inventoried for tree diversity changes which yielded 56 species from 46 genera and 26 families. Tree species richness over a decade increased by four species in site SP, two species in site AP, and one species in site KR, but decreased by one species in site MM. Tree density decreased drastically in ten-year interval by 480 (28.92%) and 102 (12.63%) stems ha-1 respectively in sites SP and AP, but moderately increased by 82 (12.09%) stems ha-1 in site KR and 26 (3.46%) stems ha-1 in site MM. Tree basal area declined in site KR from 21.6 m2 to 20.26 m2 ha-1 and in site SP from 21.1 to 20.38 m2 ha-1, but increased from 19.1 m2 to 19.43 m2 and from 15.5 to 18.63 m2 ha-1 in sites AP and MM respectively. Totally three species (Allophyluss erratus, Maytenus imarginata and Ehretia pubescens) were lost out of the 57 species recorded in 2003, and two species (Jatropha gossypiifolia and Streblus asper) were new additions when inventoried after ten years. During the census interval (2003-2013), the total aboveground biomass decreased by 5.9% in site KR and 4.8% in site SP whereas in site MM and AP, it increased by 24.6% and 7.7% respectively.The long-term forest monitoring data will be valuable to understand forest dynamics and for conservation and management of this and similar tropical forests.
Keywords: Aboveground biomass, Human disturbance, Decadal change, Permanent plot, Re-census, Tree species density, Tropical dry evergreen forest.

3- Allowable cut calculation with regarding to Preservation of forest sustainability to ten years periodic inventory(Case study: Kheirood forest - Patom district, Noshahr, Iran)
S. Ahmadashrafy , M. Namiranian , M. Zobeiri , J. Feghhi ,K. Saeb
Page 26- 32

Abstract

In order to forest sustainability conservation for wood production function,
allowable cut determination is very important. Present study was performed in
patom district in kheirood forest (the first district of forest of didactic of Tehran
Natural Resource University). Necessary data were collected from temporary
sample plot in duration two total inventory (1373, 1383). In order to allowable
cut calculation with regarding to Preservation of forest sustainability has studied
diameter distribution structure. These cases have studied 1- stoking rate and
growth rate calculation in compartments and so determination allowable cut.
Results were showed Average of compartments prediction rate growth was 2.53
percent and was higher than amount of compartments cutting and result is this
forest was existed cut leakage. In order to results of this study store rate must
been 0.45 percent of volume store in average (long duration goals). This amount
is less than done cutting in this forest. In this method, allowable cut were
purposed with 350 silve and 50 years in period and allowable cut was
calculated less than growth rate and so this destroyed forest can be retried ideal
store in effecting lesser cutting.
KEYWORDS: Allowable Cut, Sustainability, Uneven Aged Forest, Growth
Rate, Stoking Rate.

4-Benefits and Challenges of Urban Forestry among Urban Dwellers in Sahel Savannah Region of Nigeria
J. Daniel Etim ,U. Agbaeze Umazi , N. Imaobong Ufot
Page 33- 40

Abstract

Urban forestry provides critical ecosystem services which contribute
substantially to human health, livelihood and environmental quality. Thus, this
study examines the level of awareness and perception of the benefits and
challenges of urban forestry among urban dwellers in the Sahel savannah
ecological zone of Nigeria. This study also identifies the key challenges faced by
the urban dwellers as regards to the provision of urban forest and greening in
their environment. Data for this study were collected from 300 respondents
selected through stratified random sampling techniques. The survey was
conducted using structured questionnaires interview. Descriptive statistical
technique was used for analysis of the data. The result obtained showed that
majority of the respondents were male (64%) and 71.33% were married. The
study also revealed that majority of the respondents (95.33%)are literate and
had formal education and fall within the age class of 24-59 years (74%) and are
students (44%). The study concluded that majority of the sampled respondents
(68.67%) are not aware of the concept of urban forestry and its importance.
Furthermore, poor enlightenment (22.55%), poor funding (16.85%) of the urban
forestry sector and low participation of private sector were believed to be the
major constraints of urban forestry in the State. It is recommended that adequate
enlightenment of the populace should be intensified in the area in order to
increase their participation in urban forestry establishment as this will increase
the benefit they derive from environmental services provided by urban forestry.
KEYWORDS: Urban Forestry, Development, Sahel Savannah region,
Participation, Maiduguri, Nigeria

5-The Effect of Cover Soil Salinity on Button Mushroom Yield
Kh.Keley , A.Gholami , M. Alavifazel
Page 41- 43

Abstract

It is possible that the imbalance of nutrients due to salinity effect extends to
available nutrients, adsorption or division of nutrients into plants or it may be a
result of physiological inactivation from a certain nutrient matter, leading to
starvation of plant for that fundamental element. Salinity reduces the cumulative
nitrogen and phosphorous in plants. In this research, the effect of electrical
conductivity (EC) has been examined on rate of growth and yield of mushroom.
In an experiment, four samples of cover soil with ECs of 4500, 3000, 1500 and
6000 ds/m in three replicas in the beds prepared in baskets were tested. Given
that the obtained diagrams of each stage of harvest, it is concluded that the best
EC of cover soil for optimal mushroom growth is 1500 mos micro quantitatively
and qualitatively so that it is not otherwise acceptable for growing of mushroom.
For this purpose, it should be noted that the sources for securing the cover soils
must be prepared from places where there is no salinity problems and if they
have high EC, the soils should be washed by water. The peat soils of provinces
of Char Mehal, West Azerbayajan and northern area have the best soils for
covering.
KEYWORDS: EC, Mushroom, Soil Salinity, Khouzestan.

6-The Analysis of Lead and Cadmium Accumulation in Lettuce (case study: Varamin)E. Panahpour ,K.
L. Falahzadeh , Sh. Khoramnejadian
Page 44- 46

Abstract

The accumulation of metals and the contamination of agricultural soils, which is
mostly the result of humans’ activities, are among the most important
environmental issues throughout the world. Due to the use of chemical
fertilizers, pesticide, and municipal and industrial wastewaters, heavy metals
accumulate in plants. Vegetables have high abilities to absorb and stock heavy
metals, and regarding the high use of lettuce, the control of amounts of heavy
metals in it can be essential for consumers’ health. In this research, nine samples
of lettuce were chosen randomly from three farms located in Varamin City in the
spring of 2014, and after sampling and preparation by atomic absorption
instrument, lead and cadmium concentration in it was measured. The average
lead concentration in Jafarabad, Pakdasht, and Asgarabad Varamin is 0.23, 0.45,
and 0.50, respectively. The average cadmium concentration in Jafarabad,
Pakdasht, and Asgarabad Varamin is 0.06, 0.06, and 0.07, in the order
mentioned. The average lead and cadmium concentration in Asgarabade
Varamin is higher than other areas. Based on the achieved results, the
concentration of cadmium and lead in all the area is acceptable for human use.
KEYWORDS: Heavy Metals, Agricultural Products, Contamination,
Fertilizer, Varamin.

7-Regression Equation Development for Biomass Estimation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Tropical regions, Nepal
R. Asheshwar Mandal ,Bechu K. V. Yadav ,I. Chandra Dutta , S. Mohamad Haque , A. Mallik, Y. Timalsina ,
G. Kafle, K. Kumar yadav
Page 47- 52

Abstract

Nepal proposed to adopt tier 2 and to be ready for tier 3 under REDD+
mechanism. So, standard equations are essential to calculate the species wise
tree biomass. Thus, objectives of this research are to develop the regression
equations for estimation of biomass; to assess the proportion of stem, branch and
leaves in total biomass and to determine the percentage of sapwood, heartwood
and bark in bole biomass. Thus, plantation sites namely 9C, 10B, 4D and 12C of
Sagarnath Forest Development Project were selected for study and 59 trees were
felled. Out of this 40 trees were used to develop the biomass equation and
remaining 19 data were used for validation purpose. Meanwhile, height and
diameter at breast height (DBH) were measured before felling. Samples of bole,
branches and leaves and separated bark, heart wood and sap wood were dried in
the lab. The regression equations were developed between dry biomass and
DBH, height and wood density. The R2 of equations of bole, branch and leaves
were 0.9, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively. Statistically, equations were checked with
root mean square error (RMSE), t-test and F-test, their performance was
significant. Moreover, contribution of bole biomass was the highest 76.65% and
followed by branch 12.69% and leaves 10.66%. Meanwhile percentage of bark,
sap wood and heart wood in bole were 14.5%, 45.75% and 39.75% respectively.
As Nepal has proposed tier 2 in REDD+ mechanism and approaching for tier 3,
such standard biomass model has very momentous.
KEYWORDS: Biomass, Bark, Sap Wood and Heart Wood.

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Volume 4, Issue 4 (2014)

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