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Volume 4, Issue 2 (2014)

Original Article

1- A quantitative analysis of the homestead timber and fruit species diversity in two different agro ecological zones of Bangladesh
J. Akhter , H. M. Shahin Alam , M. N. Rahman
Page 53- 59


Two different administrative districts have been selected with the objective of
investigating the homestead timber and fruit species diversity in different
agroecological zones of Bangladesh. A total of 61 tree species representing 25
genera and 27 species of timber origin and 27 genera and 34 species of fruit
origin belonging to 28 families are recorded from both study areas.
Anacardiaceae and Myrtaceae are the most diverse families with five species.
The quantitative analysis reveals that in the both study areas Acacia
auriculiformis is the most dominant tree species, whereas, Areca catechu and
Musa species are dominant fruit species for two study areas. The values of
diversity indices and evenness indices of the homestead tree and fruit species of
the both study areas are close and highly resemble to each other. The higher
similarity index value indicate almost similar homestead forest resources in two
different agroecological zones of Bangladesh.
KEYWORDS: Agroecological zone, homestead, tree species, fruit species,
diversity, diversity indices, Bangladesh.

2- Isolation, identification and assessment of bioremediation potential of oil-degrading bacteria from oil-polluted sites of south of Iran
M. R. Sarikhani ,M. Ebrahimi , A. R. Fallah
Page 60- 67


The pollution of the environment with oil is spreading throughout the world
along with industrial progress. Scientists are looking for many years to find
solution for removing contaminants from the soil and water environments.
Today, the use of microorganism, for removing crude oil pollution from
contaminated sites (bioremediation) is considered by scientists. The present
study deals with isolation, identification and characterization of oil-degrading
bacteria was isolated from oil-polluted sites of south of Iran (Bushehr province).
Initially, a total of 90 isolates were screened from oil-polluted soils in Carbon
Free Minimal Medium enriched by gas oil. The 19 isolates were selected based
on high level of growth in solid medium. On the basis of morphological,
biochemical, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that,
the isolates were authentically identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,
Ralstonia sp., Vibrio sp., Sphingobacterium sp., Zymomonas sp., Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Paracoccus sp., Pantoea sp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans,
Acinetobacter johnsonii, Serattia odorifera, Pseudomonas alcaligenes,
Entrobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Chryseobacterium sp.. In order
to determine the efficiency of these bacteria in hydrocarbon-degrading an
inoculum of bacteria containing 108 cfu/ml was used in plate and liquid assays,
which were performed in factorial experiment based on completely randomized
design with 3 replications. The increasing of diameter of colony and the growth
turbidity (OD600nm) as indicators for utilization of hydrocarbon was measured
in solid and liquid assays, respectively. Results showed that in CFMM plate
assay, highest diameter of colony in presence of toluene and phenanthrene were
achieved by Chryseobacterium sp. and Sphingobacterium sp., while in liquid
assay and in presence of three compounds Serattia odorifera and Entrobacter
cloacae were efficient. Moreover, among three compounds highest degradability
in bioremediation was related to gas oil, and it’s followed by phenanthrene and
toluene, respectively.
KEYWORDS: Bioremediation, Oil-degradation bacteria, Gas oil, Toluene,
Phenanthrene, Minimal.

3- Introduction of natural and old olive stands in Ilam province
J. Hosseinzadeh , M. Mohamadpoor
Page 68- 72


Olive is a evergreen and long-lived tree, and native to Mediterranean region. The
trees are tolerant of drought, salinity and almost totally neglect, so that they
grow well in poor soils. This multipurpose and ancient tree, which is introduced
as first tree in Torah (Torat), has played an important role in supporting human
principal needs such as food, medicine and industry, for thousands of years, and
its importance is ever-increasing. In Iran similar to many parts of the world,
there are some natural stands of olive trees in areas such as: Gorgan, Barez
Mountains and Zagross Mountains. In most parts of Ilam province, in northwest
of Iran (in Zagross Mountains), with Mediterranean climate, there are some
natural stands or individual trees or shrubs of olive Throughout the present
research total 24 sites of natural olive in the province, were recognized and their
physiographic, topographic characteristics and physiology of those olive trees as
a valuable genetic sources, were registered and presented. The olive species in
total sites is Olea europaea L. , that is almost a shrub but have a high genetic
diversity especially in size of fruits. Recognition, storage and use of this
valuable genetic sources, that has been out of attention for many years, not only
have resistance to some pests and disease in sever conditions, but also have
some good crops, is very important and helps us to find improved cultivars for
sustainable development of olive orchards in Ilam province and other similar
KEYWORDS: Natural olive stands, Zagross Mountains, Ilam province.

4-Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Livelihood Options and Conservation Strategies among Chuktia Bhunjia tribe of Orissa, India
B. Sabar
Page 73- 88


This paper documents traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of a tribal
community in Indian state of Orissa. It documents 193 plant species used
variously for different purposes. The study being to understand the biodiversity
conservation ethos vis-à-vis knowledge system, it explores the collection of
practice and use pattern of various ethnobotanical species and captures different
institutional set up, beliefs and practices related to resources use through
narrative methods, participatory observation and case study. However, openended
questionnaires were administered to collect the required information. It
finds that the TEK possessed by this tribe is not only a means of ecological
conservation but also a way forward for sustainable livelihood and food security
among them. But the gradual state interventions towards mainstreaming this
community along with forest policies and market demand towards forest
resources have attracted outsiders to this region leading not only to ecological
deterioration but have pushed them to vulnerability and threatened to knowledge
system. Therefore given the implication of TEK alongside their culture in
ecosystem, it urges to take utmost care to preserve traditional culture that can
preserve the biodiversity sustainably.
KEYWORDS: India, Tribe, Traditional knowledge, Ecosystem,
Livelihood, Conservation Strategies

5-Effect of Incubation Time and Kiwi Skin on Mobility of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Sandy Soil
B. Lorestani , N. Kolahchi ,M. Shajari , H. Merrikhpour
Page 89- 97


Contamination of soils with heavy metals is caused either in a natural manner or
by human activities such as industrial and mining activities. Decontamination is
especially important for the environment. Today, natural absorbents are used to
remove heavy metals. This study aimed to study the effect of incubation time of
natural absorbent (kiwi skin) on the mobility decrease of some heavy metals
such as cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), in contaminated
sandy soils. The soil was synthetically contaminated in the laboratory with
multi-component solutions. The experiments were performed in two replicates
and two treatments (soil without adding kiwi skin (control) and soil contain kiwi
skin). The samples were kept at fixed temperature of 28ºC for 3 hours, 1, 3, 7,
14, 21 and 28 days. Then, concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were studied in
soil components using sequential extraction. The results showed that The
descending trend of distribution percentage of the heavy metals competing with
each other in exchangeable phase in the sandy soil sample along with the kiwi
skin was as follows: Cu>Zn>Pb>Cd. after 28 days (soil with kiwi skin), (Cd)
distribution in manganese and iron oxide phase was higher than other phase,
(Cu) distribution in organic phase was higher than other phase, (Pb)
distribution in manganese and iron oxide phase was higher than other and
distribution of (Zn) was high in manganese and iron Phase.
KEYWORDS: Heavy metals, Kiwi, Incubation, Sequential extraction

6-The Study of Light, Moisture and Regeneration Condition of Forest Gaps in Mixed Beech Forests of Iran
M. Akbarinia , S. Shabani , S. M. Hosseini
Page 98- 104


Forest gaps have an important role in restoring the regeneration of temperate
ecosystems. In this study, the influence of formation and sizes of forest gaps on
soil moisture content, transmittance light and regeneration density of
beech(Fagus orientalis) Maple (Acer velutinum and Acer cappadocicum) is
inspected in Lalis Fagetum stand that is located in Hyrcanian forests, northern
Iran. The gaps classified in four size classes including the small gap (200 m2),
medium gap (400 m2), large gap (600 m2), and very large gap (800 m2) with
three accompanying repetitions for each. Thirteen circular micro plots with 3.14
m2 areas were located regularly in gap different places to measuring light
amount and regeneration. The results showed that the moisture content
decreased with increasing of gap size, significantly; it will be in its highest from
the center toward gap edge. The amount of light transmittance was greatly
increased significantly due to increasing the gap size. The most amounts of this
factor considered in the very large gap and central microplots of each gap. Beech
devoted the most areas of regeneration, and the medium and large gaps included
the maximum of regeneration density for all the three species. Beech density in
small gaps considered in the center. Besides acer velutinum in the edge of
medium and large gaps and acer cappadocicum in the edge of all gaps except
the small gaps, found a considerable density.
KEYWORDS: Temperate forests, Microclimate conditions, Seedling,

7-Analysis of synanthropic flora in the “Ajazmoto” landscape forest park (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria)
S. Radanova
Page 105- 110


Nowadays practically there is no area unaffected by human activity.
Synanthropization of flora occurs in utmost degree around major administrative
centers with well developed industry and transport. The present study aims to
analyze the strongly anthropogenized flora of cultigenic ecosystem - the
“Ajazmoto” forest park near Stara Zagora, South Bulgaria. The study covers
2009-2012 time span. Standard floristic methods are used. 326 synanthropic
species, distributed in 234 genera and 66 families are found on the territory of
the forest park. Analysis comprises systematic structure, biomorphoforms,
biological type (Raunkiaer), and phytogeographic belonging of aboriginal and
adventive fraction.
KEYWORDS: cultigenic ecosystem, synanthropization, aboriginal and
adventive floras.

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