Home / Volume 4 (2014) / Volume 4, Issue 3 (2014)

Volume 4, Issue 3 (2014)

Original Article

1- Effects of Deforestation on the Edaphic Features and Phytodiversity of Selected Plants of Shangus Forests, South Kashmir (Jammu & Kashmir)
S.A. Shameem , I. Nabi Kangroo , Sh. ud dinTak , A. Nisar
Page 111-118


The results of soil characterises showed pH acidic to neutral in range (6.713, summer to 6.933autumn) at forest site and highly acidic at deforested site (5.18,summer to 5.596,autumn) season. Moisture content in soil at both sites varied between 20.213%, summer to 20.503%, autumn at protected site and 15.226%, summer to 15.576%, autumn season at deforested site. Organic carbon depicted higher trend in summer season at forest site (2.873 %,) and low trend at deforested site in autumn season (2.30%). Forest site attributed high amount of organic matter (5.0633, summer) compare to deforested site (3.66%, autumn). Total nitrogen at both sites showed significant change with maximum nitrogen observed at forest site (0.119%) and minimum at deforested site (0.049% autumn).Calcium contents at two sites found to be significantly similar (5.42meq/100g, summer and 5.166meq/100g, autumn) for forest site and (4.72 meq/100g, summer and 4.41 meq/100g, autumn) at deforested site. Magnesium content in soil at forest site was significantly higher (4.543 meq/100g,) followed by low trend at deforested site (and 3.41 meq/100g, autumn). Moisture content in soil at forest site and deforested site depicted a little variation (20.213%, summer and 20.503%, autumn) and (15.226%, summer and 15.576%, autumn). Phytodiversity estimation showed higher trend at forest site (Shannon index=0.812, dominance Index=0.999 and evenness Index=0.417) and lower trend at deforested site (Shannon Index=0.779, dominance Index=0.606 and evenness Index=0.400). Highly dominant species at forest site include Datura stramonium (IVI=49.88), Erigeron Canadensis (IVI=46.99) and Rumex sp. (IVI=59.45), However, at deforested site dominance was shown higher by Erigeron Canadensis (IVI=47.14), Rumex sp. (IVI=46.51), Trifolium pratens (IVI=61.13) and Datura stramonium (IVI=45.72). Abundance to Frequency ratio (A/F) showed contiguous trend in species distribution pattern. However, only two species depicted random and regular distribution of species at forest site while at deforested site, three species fall in contiguous as well as random distribution and only one species showed regular distribution. Comparative assessment of the results showed forest site high in soil nutrients and phytodiversity compared to deforested site.
KEYWORDS: Diversity, Seasons, Soil, Forest.

2- Application of Nested Logit Model in Ecosystem Services Valuation (Case study: Gavkhony Wetland)
S. P. Jalili kamjo , R. Khoshakhlagh , S. Samadi , Gh. H., Kiani
Page 119- 127
Page 60- 67


Wetlands as situ growth of native plants, habitat for certain species of animals including fish and aquatic birds and because of the potential economic, cultural, scientific and recreational are valuable heritage that their protection is very important. Due to absence of environmental services values of wetlands and the lack of special regulations and poorly defined and often no guarantee for their property, resources and services of wetlands ecosystem in free and unrestricted Situation are located utilized, demolition and evacuation. The purpose of this study is economic valuation of Gavkhony Wetland ecosystem attributes, estimation of implicit price, impact assessment of socio- economic variables such as age, marriage, indigenous, family size and education stand on the mentioned values and analyzing welfare and compensation variation due to variation of hypothetical policy and movement from a hypothetical policy to another one. It has been used choice experiment approach that it is subset of choice modeling procedure and stated preferences methods. Data needed extracted from six different choice experiment questionnaires filled out by 500 random households in Isfahan and Varzane city. Each questionnaire contained 72 hypothetical policies, 36 choice sets, 2442 observations and 7327 rows of data. In order to estimation of visitors WTP for improving attribute levels for Gavkhony Wetland, nested logit models and Hausman- Mac-Fadden test were used which is on the basis of multinomial discrete choice analysis of preferences, Lancaster's theory of value and the theory of random utility function. Results showed that the visitors have WTP for preserve forest diversity and vegetation of wetlands and its surroundings, preserve of natural habitats and organisms life of wetland (birds, fish and animals), Wetland hygiene (preventing industrial, domestic and prevent effluents and water salinity) and increasing the water surface (increasing wetland water inlet), respectively 863, 1258, 1155 and 474 Toman. Some socio- economic variables have a positive impact on willingness to pay. The Surplus welfare results based on estimated WTP are providing important tools for policy makers.
KEYWORDS: Valuation, Lancaster Theory, choice experiment, Nested logit model, Gavkhony Wetland.

3- Impact of distance from village on the plant diversity in the Zagros Forest (Case study, Kurdistan Province)
M. Haidari , N. Shabanian , N. Mostafa Soltani
Page 128 -134


Zagros ecosystem is considered as one of the most important biological
sites in the Iran. This research was investigated in the Marivan region,
northern Zagros forest, and western Iranian state of Kurdistan. Distances
from Komarlang village were divided into four classes. In each distance
class 30 circle sample plot (500 m2) were collected by random method (In
total 120 circle sample plots). In every sample plot the kind of species and
number of trees and shrub were recorded. In the sample plots the micro
plots of 5 m by 5 m (i.e. area of 25 m2) were designed and Herbaceous and
shrub information was recorded then. Species diversity indexes including
Shannon Wiener (H׳), Simpson (1-D) and Margaleff (R1) were used to
evaluate plant diversity in each sample plot. The means of different
between diversity indexes in the distance from village class were estimated
by ANOVA and DUNCAN test. Data analyzing was done by Past and
Ecological Methodological software’s. Data analyzing was done by Past
and Ecological Methodological software’s. Results showed the tree, shrub
and herbaceous species belonged to 29 families and 80 species were
identified in the study area. That Rosaceae and Fagaceae families have the
highest number of woody species. Moreover, Compositae and Gramineae
families were most abundant amongst herbaceous species. The mean tree,
shrub and herbaceous diversities were highest in more 1500 and lowest in
less 500 distance from Komarlang village class. The ANOVA test indicated
that there were significant differences mean Shannon (H), Simpson (1-D)
and Margaleff (R) index in the distance from Komarlang village classes (P
> 0.05). Therefore, focused the preservation and conservation program in
the nearest of village (less 500 meter distance from village) to increase the
plant diversity.
KAYWORDS: distance from village, komarlang district, marivan region,
plant diversity, Zagros Forest

4-Influence of Tree Species in some Soil Properties in an Erosion degraded   Area of Southeastern Nigeria
E. U. Onweremadu , C. M. Chris-Emenyonu , C.A. Emenyonu
Page 135- 139


The effects of tree species on soil properties on an erosion-degraded area in Mbaise, Southeastern Nigeria were evaluated. Three plant species comprising Native pear (Dacryodes edulis), oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis), oil bean tree (Pentaclethra macrophyllum) and a bare soil (Control) were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design) and 10 soil samples (replicates) per land use were collected for analysis. Soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for some properties and generated data subjected to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software (version 7.5). Least Significant Difference was used to estimate degree of variability after ANOVA. Results showed significant ( p≤ 0.05) difference in bulk density(BD), water holding capacity (WHC), Field capacity (FC) and particle size distribution (PSD) among land use types. Similar findings were recorded in soil chemical properties. Highest value of BD (1.63 Mg/m3) was reported on bare soil while soils under Pentaclethra macrophyllum 1.19 Mg/m3) improved BD. The WHC was least in bare soil (4.6 g/kg) and highest in Pentaclethra macrophyllum (15.2 g/ kg) and same trend was followed in FC. Soil organic carbon was 0.6 g/kg in bare soil and 2.5 g/kg in soils under Pentaclethra macrophyllum. Soil pH values were moderately to slightly acidic in soils under tree species but strongly acidic in bare soils (pH = 4.4). Soil Permeability (SP) and infiltration rates (IR) were higher in soils under tree species. Values of SP were 0.95 ±0.29×10-1cm2 (Pentaclethra macrophyllum), 0.85 ± 0.16× 10-1cm2 ( Elaeis guineensis), 0.83 ±0.08×10-1cm2 (Dacryodes edulis) and 0.25 ± 0.02× 10-1cm2 (Bare soil). The IR follows the same trend with initial IR being 9.2 ± 0.19 cm/hr (Pentaclethra macrophyllum), 8.7 ± 0.31 cm/hr ( Elaeis guineensis), 8.1± 0.28cm/hr (Dacryodes edulis) and 4.9 ±0.32 cm/hr(Bare soil). The SP and IR are significantly (P= 0.01) related to soil organic carbon in the erosion-degraded area of southeastern Nigeria.
KEYWORDS: Degradation, Vegetation, Soil organic matter, Soil properties, humid tropics.

5-Rated Capacity of Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Plants to absorb Nickel Using Indicators Filtration Index (Transfer Coefficient, Tran’s Location Factor and Uptake Index)
A. Jafarnejadi , E. Panahpour , Z. Ghashghaee , Kh. Payandeh
Page 140-143

6-Accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni in Soil and Different Parts of Plane Tree (Platanus orientalis L.) Seedling  Following Irrigation with Water Treatment Effluent
B. Selahvarzi , M. Akbarinia , S. M. Hosseini
Page 144- 152


In order to assess the effect of water treatment effluent irrigation on heavy
metals accumulation in soil and seedling different part, a case study was
undertaken at the site near to the Eastern Tehran water treatment plant in which
seedling were implanted in three score rows and were irrigated with water
treatment effluent, well water and mix water (50% well water + 50% water
treatment effluent) from April 2010 to October 2010. Three replications were
considered for each of three score rows. The concentrations of Zn,Cu, Pb and Ni
were measured in the soil, Roots, stems and leaves of plane tree seedling with
selection three randomize samples from each treatment in periodic form (in each
two month one time) to the end of growth season. Samples of irrigation water,
soil and seedling parts were analyzed for mentioned heavy metals. Results
indicated that water treatment effluent had higher concentration of Zn ,Cu, Pb
and Ni compared to well water and the concentration of Pb and Ni of water
treatment effluent were greater than the normal range. Irrigation with water
treatment effluent increased Zn ,Cu, Pb and Ni in soil compared to well water.
The mean heavy metal concentrations in topsoil were higher than the standard
(FAO) for all heavy metals except Cu. Zn and Cu concentration in leaves of
seedlings irrigated with water treatment effluent were significantly greater than
those in well water but the concentration of Zn and Cu in leaves were below the
permissible limits of the standard. Neither Pb nor Ni was detected in seedlings
parts. Based on these results, it can be concluded that proper management of
water treatment effluent irrigation and periodic monitoring of soil fertility and
quality parameters are required to ensure successful, safe and long term reuse of
effluent for irrigation.
KEYWORDS: Contamination, Effluent, Green Space, Heavy Metals,
Irrigation, Plantation.

7-The effect of application of electrokinetic and chelating agents on substrate induced respiration and bacterial and fungal populations in a multi-metal contaminated soil
A. A. Safari Sinegani , I. Tahmasbian Ghahfarokhi
Page 153-158


Application of combination of electrokinetic and chelating agents as a method of soil decontamination is an emerging technique recently. However there is not enough study about their effects on soil microbial activity. The current study investigated the effects of this new method on soil microbial activity to brighten its biological aspects. A multiple metal contaminated soil was treated by EDTA as a chemical chelator, cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as organic chelators (2 g kg-1) after 30 days irrigation in pots. Two weeks later the soils were treated by four oriented center electrical fields in each pot (0, 10 and 30 volts) for an hour per day during 14 days. Soil bacterial and fungal populations and substrate induced respiration (SIR) were analyzed at the end of the experiment in the soils around the cathodes and anodes separately. Result indicated that application of electrical fields had harmful effects on the bacterial and fungal populations and reduced SIR in both cathodic and anodic soils. Increasing the intensity of electrical field could increase its negative impacts. Application of EDTA catastrophically affected the analyzed indices in both cathodic and anodic soils. But utilization of PME or CME was a friendlier option in soil remediation techniques.
KAYWORDS: Electrokinetic, chelating agents, biological properties, soil

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