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Volume 4, Issue 4 (2014)

Original Article

1- Changes in the Pattern of Chitin Deposition in The Integument of Fifth Instar Larvae of Silkworm, Bombyx  mori (L) (Pm X Csr2) Topically Applied With Various Concentrations Of Acetone Solution Of Retinol
V. B. Khyade , K. Slama
Page 159- 167


The ten microliters of various concentrations of acetone solution of Retinol and
Fernasol Methyl Ether (FME) were used for topical application to individual
larval instars of silkworm, Bombyx mori (L) (Race: PM x CSR2) at 48 hours
after the fourth moult. The integument chitin of untreated control larvae; acetone
treated control; FME treated larvae and Retinol treated larvae was estimated at
120 hours after the fourth moult. Topical application of various concentrations
of acetone solutions of FME and Retinol to fifth instar larvae of silkworm,
Bombyx mori (L) (Race: PM x CSR2) was found reflected into the reduction in
the deposition of chitin in the larval body wall. The reduction in body wall chitin
was found ranging from zero to hundred percent. The plot of concentrations of
acetone solutions (FME and Retinol) and percent reduction in the body wall
chitin was found exhibiting a characteristic Sigmoid form of displacement,
which herewith titled as “Punyamayee Baramati Dose Response Curve”. Since
the effects of juvenoids involve the inhibition of metamorphosis of insects
through reduction in chitin deposition, it is possible to express the concentration
(dose) applied in terms of ID50 value. The ID50 value of juvenoid contents of
FME and Retinol can be defined as the specific unit (mg/ml), which enable to
chitin to deposit fifty percent less in the body wall of larvae (In comparison with
untreated control). Accordingly ,the ID50 value calculated from the
“Punyamayee Baramati Dose Response Curves” for FME was found measured
0.08 mg/ml. The ID50 value for Retinol was measured 0.095 mg/ml. Acetone
soluble juvenoid content of Retinol , the Diterpene compounds may be utilized
efficiently for the fortified development of fifth instars of silkworm, Bombyx
mori (L) and thereby, the cocoon quality. Sigmoid (S-form) “Baramati Dose
Response Curve” may help for quantitative estimation of juvenoid contents of
various terpene compounds and terpenoids.
KEYWORDS: FME; Diterpene; Retinol , ID50 value ; Chitin, juvenoids.

2- Efficiency Study of Ellenberg method Application for Ecological Evaluation of Herbal sites (Case study: Ecological Evaluation of Lilium ledebourii site in Gilan Province)
S. M. Hosseini , M. Saeedifard
Page 168- 173


This study has been done based on using of Ellenberg method for ecological
evaluation of Lilium ledebourii site in Damash heights. Application of Ellenberg
method as one of the ecological evaluation method for determining ecological
parameters such as: light, latitude, temperature, soil moisture, soil fertility and
soil pH is based on vegetation recognition and Ellenberg table application.
Determining of vegetation in natural site is used as a tool for ecological
evaluation of herbal sites. In this research a simple method of Ellenberg is
applied for ecological evaluating of herbal sites and validity of method in
compare with field investigation was studied. Ellenberg method results
Comparison with field investigation show that this ecological evaluation method
is valid arising from relative agreement between results. By applying of this
method and understanding effective ecological factors on Lilium ledebourii, the
conservation process of this threatened species should be upgraded.
KEYWORDS: Ellenbeg method, Ecological evaluation, Lilium ledebourii,
Vegetation, herbal sites.

3- Impact of farm operation in forest on the tree, shrub and regeneration in the Zagros forest (Case forest: Oak forest)
M. Bazyar , M. Haidari
Page 174- 181


Species diversity is one of the most important indices was used to evaluate the
sustainability of forest communities. This research was investigated in the
Seyefe-Bala village district, Marivan region, Kurdistan Province, Northern
Zagros Forest west of Iran. 60 circle sample plots (500 m2) were collected in the
each site by randomized-systematic method in the 100×200 Net. In every sample
plot the kind of species and number of trees were recorded. In the sample plots
the micro plots of 5 m by 5 m (i.e. area of 25 m2) were designed, regeneration
and shrub information was recorded then. Species diversity indexes including
Shannon Wiener (H׳) and Margaleff (R1) were used to evaluate plant diversity
in each sample plot. The means of different between diversity indexes in the two
sites were estimated by t-test. Data analyzing was done by SPSS16 and
Ecological Methodological software’s. The numbers of 10 and 17 woody species
in the farm operation and non-farm operation area. Tree, shrub and seed
regeneration diversity in the non-farm operation area has higher means diversity
index and differences between vegetation layer diversity indexes in the two areas
were statistically significant. Results showed that shrub layer had the higher
diversity indices (richness, diversity and evenness). In total farm operation in
forest has negative effect in the tree, shrub and coppice regeneration diversity.
Therefore, prevention of farm operation in forest in the degraded forest stands
can be suggested as a suitable approach for natural restoration and increasing
plant diversity.
KEYWORDS: farm operation in forest, kordistan province, regeneration,
shrub diversity, tree diversity, zagros.

4-Floristic diversity and its conservation status in the selected sacred groves of Madurai District, TamilNadu, India
S. Ganesan ,K. Saraswathy
Page 182- 191


The Art of nature worship is an ancient Indian tradition. The Sacred Groves are
example of this worship, here the batches of plant diversity protected by ethnic
peoples under believes that to keep them in secrecy of relationship with the
nature. It provides the information about the ancient life form and the myth
about the nature. In the present study, the floristic composition and conservation
status of selected sacred groves were analyzed, totally 150 species belonging to
65 families were recorded from the five selected sacred groves. The family
Euphorbiaceae (14 species) was represented with maximum number of species
followed by Caesalpiniaceae (9 species) and Fabaceae (8 species). Overall, the
herbaceous species (53) were more dominant than trees (42), shrubs (36) and
climber (19). Among the different families of flowering plants recorded,
Polypetalae (23) were found to be more in number than Gamopetalae (19),
Monocots (16) and Apetalae (7). The species composition of each grove was
unique and 68 plant species were found in only one grove due to habitat
variation. Two rare plants such as insectivorous plant Drosera indica L. and the
partial plant parasite Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh. were recorded from
grove one and four respectively. The selected groves were well conserved by
local residences of those areas through myths, beliefs and folklores.
KEYWORDS: Sacred Groves, Biodiversity InSitu Conservation,
Ethnobotany, Tamil Nadu

5-A diversity Survey of mountainous forests trees in north of Iran
M. M. Fallahchai
Page 192- 196


Biodiversity and its natural process in different ecosystems contribute to the
correct understanding of the interrelationships between the land, climate, plants
and other living things. Through biodiversity, it is possible to plan the utility
patterns of natural resources by referring to its component parts. The forests of
North of Iran (with an area of 1.8 square kilometers) belong to the Hycranian or
deciduous broad-leaf forests and possesses a temperate and humid climate. They
are of great importance in Iran because of their uniqueness in plant community,
ecological, genetic and species diversity. As only a small percent of the plants in
Iran is located in Europe, Siberia, Caspian sea coasts and the forests of north of
Iran, the number of tree species and shrubs reaches to more than 80 and 50
respectively. Besides, since the majority of the forests of north of Iran are
mountainous and have a high diversity of woody species a study of the trees
species of the Hycranian forests can prove to be very useful and of highest
importance. For this purpose, 40 sample plots 0.5 hectare have been randomly
chosen and surveyed in different altitudes between 100-3520 m of Tonekabon
forests. The results obtained from the analysis of this survey, indicates that with
increase in altitude from sea level, species richness decrease while species
diversity and evenness continue to rise so that the maximum species diversity is
observed at the altitude range of 350-750 m above sea level and the least
diversity of species is observed at the range of 1550-1750 m altitude.
KEYWORDS: Diversity, Forest, , Richness, Evenness, Iran.

6-Studying the nitrate contamination in Parsley farms in Iran
A.Gholami , A.Heydari , E.Panahpour
Page 197- 200


The accumulation of nitrate in the agriculture products, especially vegetables,
water and foods is one of those factors that exposes the people health and
hygiene in particular the neonates to the risk. The purpose of present study is to
examine the nitrate amount in the highly use plants, i.e. parsley at the vegetable
farms of Dezful city. The sampling of the farms at third zone of Dezful was
conducted randomly through three consecutive pickings from first, middle and
last rows during morning. The samples was dried in an oven at 70°C and
powdered by a mill. Next, a spectrophotometer device read their nitrates. In
order to compare the mean and standard deviation, the nitrate concentration in
the tested samples in the three zones was studied by employing Duncan test at
5% level using SPSS 18 package. The results showed that the highest nitrate
amounts in the tested samples of the three farms were 10295 mg/kg of fresh
weight in the parsley. Thus, there was no significant difference. All the parsley
samples were beyond standard limit (500 mg/kg of fresh weight).
KEYWORDS: Nitrate, spectrophotometery, Parsley, Dezful.

7-Effect of Logging Activities on Soil Microorganisms in Selected Forest Reserve of Ondo State
J. A. Olusola ,S. A. Adeduntan
Page 201- 207


The study was carried out to assess the influence of logging on microbial
population and soil properties in Akure forest reserve. The microbes were
isolated and counted in agar plated composite soil samples collected from
unlogged forest and two differently logged habitats in Akure forest reserve. The
soil pH and soil structure of each selected habitat were also examined. The
results show that the soil samples contain 18 species of bacteria and 13 species
of fungi. However, 11 species of bacteria were found in the unlogged forest, 14
for lightly logged and 8 for heavily logged. Likewise 8, 9, 6 species of fungi
were observed from unlogged, lightly logged and heavily logged forests
respectively. Bacteria count was significantly higher (p≤0.05) in unlogged than
other studied habitat. Unlogged forest had pH value of 5.85±0.17, lightly logged
had 6.56±0.19 and heavily logged habitat had 6.40±0.15. The results of
percentage sand composition shows that unlogged, lightly logged and heavily
logged habitats had the value of 78.24±1.00, 76.99±1.79 and 77.24±1.00
respectively. The results further shows that the pH in unlogged is moderately
acidic (5.850.17), while lightly logged forest and heavily logged forests were
slightly acidic (6.560.19 and 6.400.15). The regression equation shows that a
relationship exists between percentage sand content and bacteria, soil pH and
fungi. But there is no relationship between the soil pH and bacteria and
percentage sand content and fungi since their R2 is very low. The implication of
their relationship is discussed.
KEYWORDS: Bacteria, Fungi, Degraded, Diversity, and Abundance.

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