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Volume 5, Issue 2 (2015)

Original Article

1- An overview of various Sampling Method to Assess the Abundance of Prey of Large Carnivores’: A special focus to Line Transect based Distance sampling method.
Aniruddha Majumder* , Khageswar Nayak
Page 61-75


Success of most conservation efforts depends on availability of reliable scientific information on predation ecology, biology and population dynamics and habitat use of the concerned species. The evidence of evolutionary history suggests that ungulate communities act as determinant of large carnivore distribution and abundance across the distributional range in tropical forest. So carnivore density is positively related to prey abundance particularly wild ungulates and large wild ungulates with wider spatial distribution play a significant role in deciding the occurrence of large carnivores. Moreover, a threshold of prey abundance that determines poor or good quality of habitat reflecting the breeding possibility is important for developing necessary conservation action. Thus, reliable scientific information on the abundance of ungulate is critical for guiding large carnivore conservation action from local management intervention to regional conservation planning in the various large carnivores occupied landscape. As obtaining reliable field techniques to estimate ungulate abundance is often a major challenge for field managers and biologists, particularly in various forests especially in tropics where ungulate numbers are depressed by hunting, this review article may augment the domain knowledge and helped to develop model based framework for estimation of prey species. After reviewing various studies across the globe on ungulate abundance estimation techniques, line transects techniques under distance based sampling method found to be more reliable and widely applicable with least precision. This critical review article also gave an insight on analytical progress of line transect based distance sampling method and their uses in various forest ecosystem.
KEYWORDS: Distance sampling method, line transects, prey abundance.

2- Uncertainty Analysis of Downscaling Results in Assessment of Climate Change Impact on the Flood Frequency
Reza Kabiri*, K. Saeb
Page 76-91


The uncertainty analysis was done on the downscaling outputs using Large Scale Predictor Re-analysis NCEP and Had-CM3 GCM model. Uncertainty assessment in climate change downscaling is conducted by comparison with mean and variance between observed/historical and downscaled outputs. The evaluation was conducted to estimate the model error in terms of differences between the mean values of observed and downscaled outputs. The historical NCEP Large Scale Re-analysis data over 1975-2001 was used as observed data in error model. The results indicate the model error in the SDSM with the p-value higher than 0.05 which presents the similarity of two observed and simulated outputs. SDSM does not produce significant error of the rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and evaporation for all the months over the year. In daily precipitation, temperature and evaporation downscaling at all the stations in Klang Watershed, the statistical downscaling model errors are insignificant in all the months as p-values at 5% significance level are found above 0.05 which means the model errors are insignificant at 95% confidence level.
The parametric Wilicoxon test and non-parametric statistical levene ‘s test are used to estimate the equality of mean and variances between observed and downscaled data at 95% confidence level respectively. The results present that SDSM could produce a reliable downscaling model in Klang Watershed as the mean and variances of observed and downscaled of all the data are close together and the calculated P-values are above 0.05at 5% significant level which means the SDSM model errors are insignificant at 95% confidence level. Finally, all the results reveal that the observed data in the watershed considered as predictands are in a good regression to the large scale re-analysis NCEP in statistical downscaling model using SDSM software which simulates the related predictands with 95% confidence level.
KEYWORDS: Climate change, Flood frequency, evaluation, Klang watershed.

S. A. Adeduntan* , A. E. Olawale
Page 92-103


The abundance and diversity of fungi was examined in three Forest Reserves in Southwestern Nigeria (Eda forest reserve in Ekiti State, Omo forest reserve in Ogun State and Akure forest reserve in Ondo State).The Fungi were also obtained and identified from five sample plots randomly picked (25×25m2) which was demarcated in each of the selected sites. Fungi were collected manually, pictures were taken, and were preserved in 10mls of Formalin and 900g of distilled water for the two seasons (April and August). The result of the tree species index was calculated using Shannon weiner diversity index formula; the species evenness range too was calculated. A total of 18 identifiable species were collected and identified in the study areas for the month of April while a total of 16 species were collected for the month of August. The tree diversity index for Eda forest was the highest (-3.28334) followed by Akure and Omo forest reserve which were -3.28334 and -2.25654 respectively. Eda forest reserve had the highest evenness range of 0.881935 followed by Akure forest reserve and Omo forest reserve which had 0.57666 and 0.34364 respectively. The forest habitat does not have effect on the species diversity of fungi and rainfall affects the occurrence and abundance of the fungi species present in the study areas. In view of the important role fungi play in the conservation of forest ecosystem, these fungi species should be cultured.
KEYWORDS: Tree Diversity index, Forest ecosystem, Forest reserves, Species diversity, Fungi.

4-Assessment of Agroforestry Practice as a Land Use Option for Biodiversity Conservation in Osun State, Nigeria
Sobola, Oluronk Olubunmi  ,Olusola Johnson Adeyinka* ,Amadi Dennis C   ,Idiege Damasus
Page 104-112


The study was carried out in Osun State, South-western part of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used for the study; data was collected with pre-tested and validated questionnaires. The results revealed that farmers in the study area were predominantly male (90%). Land is mainly obtained through lease (46%) and inheritance (40%). Average farm size in the study area is 1.8 hectares. Most respondents were married and while 35% were between the age brackets of 50 years. Furthermore, 53% of the farmers have large family size of between 6 and 9 persons. Most farmers indicated adoption of agroforestry practice, owing to the numerous advantage accrue to the system (76%), while the various agroforestry practices identified are boundary planting (22%), home gardening (19%), improved fallow (17%), taungya farming (11%), retaining trees on farmland (11%) and shifting cultivation (4%). The introduction and promotion of agroforestry in the area would however not be a new idea since farmers have been practicing the act of keeping trees together with food crops on their farms. However, poor forestry extension service, lack of technical knowhow, non-availability of improved seedlings, lack of incentives, trees casting shadows on crops were all identified as limitations to optimal adoption of agroforestry. However, addressing the various limitations to the adoption of agroforestry, there is need to initiate and integrate agroforestry extension service into Osun state Agricultural Development Agency (OSADEP) which will enable access to farmers on personal basis and allows for wider coverage to educate farmers on the intricacies of agroforestry system.
KEYWORDS: Agroforestry; shifting cultivation; biodiversity conservation

Page 113-122


6-Morphological characteristics and soil attributes of five species of Galium (Rubiaceae) from North Africa
Monier M. Abd El-Ghan*,Shahnaz Al-Wakeel ,Hani Moubasher  ,Amany F. Bahoor
Page 123-134


The morphological variations between selected five Galium species from Libya, and the role of soil factors that affect their distribution in their natural habitats were investigated. Thirty-seven macromorphological characters (11quantitative, 26 qualitative) representing vegetative parts were subjected to numerical-taxonomic analysis. Five branches and clusters were distinguished; each was linked to a specific species. Representatives of these groups were clustered together according to characters with high factor loading in the Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The results showed congruence between the UPGMA clustering and PCA in suggesting five species groups. Seventeen soil factors were used in this assessment of soil factors responsible for the distribution of the 5 species of Galium. Calcium and chloride ions content exhibited the most significant difference (p=0.05) among the five species groups, while the other examined soil variables showed no significant differences. The relationship between the examined soil variables and the studied populations of Galium species was assessed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Each of the studied species of Galium was affected by one or more of the examined soil parameters.
KEYWORDS: Vegetation, Libya, Galium, soil analysis, distribution.

7-Spatiotemporal Variation of Microbial Load in High Altitude Shola Soils of Tropical Montane Forest, Kerala, South India: A Function of Important Soil Physicochemical Characteristics
Page 135-144


Microbial population control many of the crucial processes on which the very maintenance and survival of tropical forests depend. Microorganisms in the soil are strongly influenced by various chemical and physical factors, including nutrient availability, organic matter, soil moisture, temperature etc. Therefore in the present study we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of microbial load and their relationship with important physicochemical characteristics of shola forest soils of tropical montane forest, Kerala, South India. The study revealed that there was a spatial and temporal variation of microbial load in the soils of shola forest. Shola soils were weakly acidic and the microbial load was characterized by high load of bacteria followed by fungi and actinomycetes. Bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes load was high during pre monsoon followed by post monsoon and monsoon period. The microbial load varied with important soil properties and there was significant (0.01 level) positive correlation between bacterial and fungal load with total organic carbon and NPK. Actinomycetes showed significant (0.01 level) negative correlation with moisture content.
KEYWORDS: Shola forest, Soil Bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes
Healthy soil

8-Scrutiny the Interaction between Iron Nano Chelate and Colophony Hydrogel on Soil Chemical and Nutritional Characteristics
Mehrnoush Taghizadeh , Ali Gholami*, Noorallah Moalemi
Page 145-152


Tourism is one of the largest and most popular activities in the developing world. Development activities in this industry, especially in natural areas such as national parks and protected areas has caused, trends in pandemic planning and management activities should be taken to ensure ecological balance also plays an important role in supplying the demand of recreational of the people. Bamu National Park because of its beautiful scenery and rich biodiversity of the high power nature has to attract tourists. The aim of this study was to identify weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats as well as nature study area is the development strategy for hiking in the area. To achieve this goal, the matrix method is used to assess the internal and external factors. After the first field visit frequently, weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats were identified and then hiking in the area, based on questionnaire prepared by the relevant authorities, tourists and these were prioritized. The results show that in the region of 9 to 13 internal strengths internal weaknesses and external opportunities 7 vs. 8 external threats can be identified.The four competitive strategies - aggressive (SO), diversity (ST), Weekly (WO) and defensive (WT) was presented by the development of tourism in the region.
KEYWORDS: tourism, analysis, SWOT, Bamu National Park, development.

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