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Volume 5, Issue 3 (2015)

Research note

1- Use of the Boron Element and its Effect on Buds and Flowers Number of Tagetes Erecta in Ahvaz Climate
Kazem Bohlolzade, Ali Gholami*, Ebrahim Panahpour
Page 153-156


Boron (B) is a necessary micronutrient for higher plants and plays a part in germination and pollen tube growth. The purpose of this research was to determine the best levels of B spray on Tagetes flowers and to study the effects these sprays had on number of flower buds and flowers in short-stemmed Tagetes. Therefore, a completely randomized design pot experiment with 3 replications was conducted that included 4 B spray treatments (the control: T0, 0.5 PPt: T1, 0.75 PPt: T2, and 1 PPt: T3). The PPt is the abbreviation of part per thousands. Results indicated the maximum number of flower buds belonged to the T3, T2, and T1 treatments with 67.06, 63, and 43.71% increases in the number of flower buds, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, B sprays at 1, 0.75, and 0.5 PPt yielded the largest number of flowers (1.55, 1.22, and 0.65, respectively). Therefore, B spray at 1 PPt yielded the best results in this research.
KEYWORDS: Boron, spray, Tagetes flowers, Ahvaz.

Original Articles

2- Preliminary List of Flora and Fauna along the interpretation site of Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary- A UNESCO World Heritage site and ASEAN Heritage Park in the Philippines
J.M Balbanida*,R. Barrios ,G.S. Garcia, C. Romaguera
Page 157-165


A random listing of flora and fauna species along Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (MHRWS) Interpretation Site, Municipalities of Mati, San Isidro and Governor Generoso, Province of Davao Oriental, Philippines was conducted during April 28 – May 5, 2016. One hundred twenty-three (123) flora species belonging to 80 families and 111 genera have been identified. In addition, 96 species of fauna species belonging 23 orders have also been recorded. The unidentified flora and fauna species calls for further efforts of assessment, research and identification. Overall, the baseline data show high endemicity and biodiversity within the MHRWS Interpretation Site.
KEYWORDS: MHRWS, fauna, flora ,biodiversity, endemicity.

Ajayi Olusina Tunde*, Ojo Samson Olugbenga
Page 166-183


Old Oyo National Park (OONP) is one of the ecotourism destinations in Nigeria. Despite the rich biodiversity resources in that destination, there are indications that the park has not enjoyed the benefits of ecotourism due to some barriers. This study was carried out to investigate the views of four different stakeholder groups on the barriers to ecotourism development in the park. A 3-stage sampling technique was used to select 220 residents, 95 park staff, 354 ecotourists and 125 entrepreneurs. This included simple random sampling to select 27 communities within 1-20km from the park; stratified random sampling to select Park staff; and purposive sampling to select resident, ecotourist and entrepreneur respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information on respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics and factors limiting ecotourism development. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Respondents’ ages were 34.8±6.3 years for residents and 26.9±7.4 years for ecotourists. Residents and ecotourists that had tertiary education were 8% and 100% respectively. There are significant differences among the respondents on their opinions on the levels of constraints of security on ecotourism development. If ecotourism in Old Oyo National Park would be sustainably developed, the opinions of these respondents should be given utmost priority and attention. Therefore, stakeholder groups should be ably represented in decision-making about ecotourism development and management at the destination.
KEYWORDS: Ecotourism destinations in Nigeria, ecotourism development and management, Old Oyo National Park, Stakeholder groups.

Emily Kitivo ,Gedion .H Nyamasyo ,J.N Kimatu* ,Peter N. Ndegwa
Page 184-193


Subterranean termites are an important component of below ground biodiversity since they live in the soil and they provide physical niche opportunities for lower level organisms determining their community structure. The distribution and abundance of termite species are used to indicate termite community structure. Soil physical and chemical properties are often affected by termite activity. Therefore, land use systems are suggested to be influenced by termites’ density and diversity through the different operations executed by the farmers and the type of vegetation cover. This study was instituted to determine termite diversity and abundance in different land cover types in correlation to soil physical and chemical characteristics. It was carried out over a period of 6 months during a dry period and a wet season. Two transects of 5m x 40m and 200m x 600m were employed based on vegetation cover. Our results using mainly the macrotermitinae termite community structure showed that land cover type and season significantly affected the termites’ abundance (P=0.005). That termites created islands of fertility in ecosystems via a type of ecosystem engineering. This also study concluded that the conversion of forest into farmland negatively affects termites’ abundance and consequently the soil quality decreases. Therefore, sustainable use of agro- ecosystems is suggested to focus on the use of organic manure to conserve termites which are important in improving soil fertility.
KEYWORDS: termite, ecosystem, fertility, community, land use, agriculture.

5-Avifauna Species Diversity of Nigeria
Okosodo E.F
Page 194-204


Diversity of avian species were studied in Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research Edo State Nigeria.. Ten transect lines of 1000 m each and 8 counting stations were randomly placed. Data were collected for twelve months (Dry and Wet seasons). Transects lines were patrolled three times a week and all birds seen and heard were recorded. In all, a total 807 individual bird species spread across 77 bird species, 22 families and 8 orders were recorded. The dominant family was Estrilda it has 7 of the total bird species. Two rare bird species of Malimbe (Malimbus erythrogaster and Malimbus scutalus) were encountered in the study area. The relative abundance of bird species were higher (25.2 and 18.9) dry season was higher than the wet season (18.9and 18.2 of the year, This study showed that the value of Shannon diversity index for bird species was higher in the dry season (3.52) than the farmland (3.438). A total of 13 taxas and 17 individual trees species belonging to 13 families were enumerated.
KEYWORDS: Home Range, Diversity, Avian Species, Agricultural intensification and Habitat Fragmentation.

6-Decomposition of Jatropha curcas Linn. Litter (A case study at El Rawakeeb Research Farm, Sudan)
Maha Ali Abdel Latif ,Ishtiag Hassan Abdalla
Page 205-213


Decomposition is a biological process through which nutrients are released for plant use. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.),is a potential tropical plant that can be grown to improve the environment and enhance the quality of rural life. Since, knowledge about the decomposition of Jatropha curcas litter is not fully documented in Sudan, the objective of this study is to evaluate decomposition and factors affecting it. A completely randomized block design field experiment was conducted at El- Rawakeeb Research Farm. The study area was divided into three study sites according to plant spacing.These sites were: A: control barren site, B: planted site spaced at (2x270 m) and C: planted site spaced at (1x3m). Eight gram air dried Jatropha curcas litter was weighed into 0.1 x 1.5 m nylon litter decomposition bags of 2 mm mesh size. Litter bags were buried at 20 cm soil depth in the three sites. Random samples of these bags along with their soil contents were periodically retrieved monthly and for four months for analyses. Results obtained indicated significant variations in litter decomposition between the three study sites. Significant differences in soil temperature and pH values and insignificant variations in humidity, Ca, Mg and silt contents. Sat, Na and SAR, between the three study sites, (P≤0.05) were noticed. Significant differences in population density of the extracted decomposers fauna (i.e.Collembola, termites and mites) were obtained. (P≤0.05). These results emphasize that decomposition of Jatropha curcas litter is affected by plant spacing, site characteristics and population density of decomposers.
KEYWORDS: litter decomposition, Jatropha curcas, decomposers.

Zerihun Tsegaye Brihanu* , Brihanu Gizaw
Page 214-232


Enset (Ensete ventricosum welw Chessman) is a crop of major economic and socio-cultural importance for a wide range of smallholder households in Ethiopia. Enset supports more than 20 - 25% of Ethiopia's population as staple and co-staple food, and also used as a traditional medicine. Processing of Enset for food is based on traditional indigenous knowledge of the people and varies among different Enset growing areas. The objective of this study was to assess and document indigenous knowledge of traditional fermented enset products preparation and utilization techniques in Gedeo zone. Data was collected using structured, semi-structured questionnaire, personal interview, direct observation, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Then a structured and semi-structured questionnaire was designed to collect information across 23 group informants (132 listed elder informants) who involved in the study from six districts. The major enset processing steps, including, selection of mature enset plants, preparation of surface fermentation, pulverization and decortications, bulla extraction, the traditional tools used and starter culture (Gamama) preparation were described. Among the respondents, 49.24% of those in the study area were male and 50.56 % female and almost all study participants were evolved from Gedeo ethnic groups that involved in enset plant cultivation and traditional Kocho preparation. Enset clones which were dominant and recognized by many farmers in Gedeo zone were Nifo, Toracho, Denbele, Shagne, Dinke, Ado and Harame respectively used 100%, 36.6%, 35.6%, 34.09%, 26.51%, 17.42% and 7.57% utilized by farmers mainly due to its fast fermentation process and quality of kocho. 100% of the study participants were used enset clones such as Kake, Qarassie and Astara for its medicinal importance, for its fast fermentation purposes and also for its kocho quality. 100% study participants were used Genticho variety for its kocho yield, drought and diseases resistance. However every parts of enset were exhaustively used by farmers for different purpose. Understanding these different community traditional kocho and bulla preparation and utilization practices are very important. In addition to understanding these practices, it is very important to document this traditional community indigenous knowledge.
KEYWORDS: Bulla, Enset, Gedeo Zone, Indigenous knowledge, Kocho.

Stephen Oyondi , Shadrack Muya  , Muchane Muchai
Page 233-255


Avifaunal habitats are severely threatened in Kenya. Despite their faunal endemism, they have received very little conservation attention. A study on effects of farming activities on bird diversity and abundance was conducted in Trans Mara sub county Kenya. Line transect sampling, point counts, time species counts, mist netting and opportunistic observations were used to carry out birds census to determine their abundance and diversity in the cultivated (tea and sugarcane farms) and indigenous forests. Sampling of birds was carried out in August to November, 2014 (short rains), December to January 2015 (dry season). Shannon Wiener Diversity index was used to calculate diversity and species richness. Sorenson diversity index was used to determine how the various habitats compared in terms of diversity and abundance. A total of 3792 individuals comprising 140 species were observed and recorded in the entire study area. Out of these, 105 species were recorded in the indigenous forests, 64 in tea farms and 49 species in the sugarcane farms. Bird abundance differed across the three habitats (P<0.05). The indigenous forest had the highest density of 5.7±0.64birds/ha followed by tea farms with 3.9±1.23birds/ha while sugarcane farms had the least density of 0.9±0.15birds/ha.The results of this study demonstrate that human disturbances in natural ecosystems and intensified agricultural systems have adverse effects on birds. There is need for frequent bird population monitoring to ensure their survival in Trans Mara ecosystem.
KEYWORDS: Forests, Birds, farms, Abundance, Diversity, Habitat.

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