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Volume 5, Issue 4 (2015)

Original Articles

1- Tree Diversity Status of Soil Seed Bank and Overstory Vegetation of Six Different  Physiognomies in Shasha Forest Reserve
Adebola S. I *Awotoye O.O
Page 256-267


Tree species in the soil seed bank (SSB) and overstory vegetation were assessed in
six contrasting physiognomies; (secondary re-growth natural forest (SRNF),
Terminalia superba plantation (TSP), Pinus caribaea plantation (PCP), Gmelina
arborea plantation (GAP), Tectona grandis plantation (TGP) and Theobroma cacao
plantation (TCP) in Shasha Forest Reserve. Eight plots 25m x 25m were randomly
selected in each physiognomy for the overstory vegetation study. Tree species were
identified and assigned into families. Twenty four composites soil samples were
collected from three quadrats of 5m x 5m at surface soil layer (0-15 cm), in each
physiognomies. The soils were spread in well-drained porous bowls and watered for a
year for tree seedling emergence inside the screenhouse.
Tree diversity indicated that overstory vegetation and soil seed bank emergence
varied among the physiognomies, with the trio of secondary re-growth natural forest,
T. superba and P. caribaea plantations having the highest tree diversity and
abundance. The highest tree emergence was observed in TSP (33.3%) followed by
GAP and SRNF (26.6% and 20.0%) while the least occurred in TCP, TGP and PCP
(6.6%). The study revealed poor representation of standing overstory tree species at
the SSB and showed the reason why traditional abandonment of forest fail to allow
restoration of most tree species without human effort. This study concluded therefore,
that future restoration planning should not be based on traditional abandoment of
forest that relies on SSB succession; deliberate introduction of endangered tree
species through enrichment planting of forest reserves is thereby recommended.
KEYWORDS: Physiognomies, Regeneration, Seedlings, Soil Seed
Bank, Tree diversity.

2- Assessment of Community Indigenous Knowledge on Traditional Use of Arthrospira, Spirulina Species
Roman Nega*1,Woinshet Lule1, Damtew Etisa1
Page 268-281


Arthrospira/Spirulina has a high content of proteins, pigments, essential fatty
acids, vitamins and minerals. In Ethiopia Lake Aranguade (HoraHadho) and
Chitu and also in Kenya Lake simbi and nakuru are dominated (almost unialgal
population) by Arthrospira. This microalga is the major food source for
monkeys and the vast flocks of lesser flamingo in the lakes. The objective of
the present study was, therefore, to assess and document community
indigenous knowledge on traditional use of Arthrospira species in Lake
Arenguade Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured and semi-structured
questionnaire, personal interview, focus group discussion. Questionnaires
were designed to collect information across 22 group informants (111
informants) who involved in the study from Gerbichakebele. From all study
participants 98 (88.3%) were female and 13(11.7%) were male. Most of the
respondents reported that Spirulina (thick algal mat) covered the lake during
spring season, when there is cloudy air condition. All study participants said
that no needs Spirulina for food but, monkeys are the only animal that uses
Spirulina for food. Cattle also use the water for drinking during shortage of
greases. All of the respondents reported that Spirulina is important for
traditional medicines to prevent lesion and skin scabies for animals and
humans. All respondents reported that uses Spirulina for house painting and
wash their cloth. As a conclusion Arthrospira have been used for many
purposes by the farmers live around the lake for many years until now. All
citizens have a responsibility to participate in the restoration of the lake as well
as utilization of the resource wisely.
KEYWORDS: Arthrospira, Spirulina, indigenous knowledge, Lake
Indigenous knowledge

3- Microalgal Diversity of Middle Rift Valley Lakes (Arenguade and Killole) Oromia Region, Ethiopia
Woinshet Lule, Roman Nega, Damtew Etisa
Page 282- 288


Microalgae have been one of the richest and most promising sources of
bioactive primary and secondary metabolites and their discovery has
significantly expanded in the past decades. The aim of the study was to
assess the diversity of microalgae in Lake Arenguade and Kilole. Lake
Arenguade and Killole are an alkaline soda lakes located in Bishoftu,
Ethiopia. Sampling of the two lakes and data were collected during February
2016. The preserved Microalgal samples and the fresh water samples grow
on liquid media (BBM and BG-11) were examined using binocular
microscope and their identification to genus or species level were made on
the basis of various descriptors of Microalgae. The result indicated that
Arthrospira is dominant species in Lake Arenguade and maximum diversity
index showed in two lakes by phylum Chlorophyta and other Cyanobacteria
genera were common in Lake Killole.
KEYWORDS: Microalgae, diversity, Middle Rift Valley lakes,
Arenguade, Killole.

Emily Kitivo ,Gedion .H Nyamasyo ,J.N Kimatu* ,Peter N. Ndegwa
Page 184-193


Sacred groves (or SGs) are distinct patches of vegetation (ranging in size
from a small cluster of a few trees to a large forest stand spanning several
hundred acres) which are consecrated in the name of local deities or ancestral
spirits. In this present communication, floral diversity in 43 SGs, ranging
from 100 Sq m to 1400 Sq m in area of Bishnupur (26), Joypur (7) and
Patrasayer (10) blocks of Bankura district of the state West Bengal is
documented where 65 economically important plant species are recorded
from. Among these 65 identified trees, 31 are important for medicinal value,
10 plants produce edible products, 15 plants have timber value, 6 plant
species are ornamental, whereas, 4 plant species are worshipped as sacred
trees In these 43 SGs it is found that 26 plant species are having non timber
product (NTP) value. In Bishnupur block, 2 places are sankritized by the
replacement of folk deities with Hindu Gods or Goddesses, and temples
seizing the place of plant growth. Natural growths of these traditional
conserved lands are therefore in peril.
KEYWORDS: Bishnupur, Joypur, Patrasayer, Sacred Groves, Floral
diversity, Conservation.

5-Sacred groves of Bishnupur, Joypur and Patrasayer blocks of Bankura district, West Bengal and their current status
Bulganin Mitra*, Priyanka Das, Arna Mazumder, Imtiaz Imam
Page 296- 311


Diversity of avian species were studied in Nigeria Institute for Oil Palm Research Edo State Nigeria.. Ten transect lines of 1000 m each and 8 counting stations were randomly placed. Data were collected for twelve months (Dry and Wet seasons). Transects lines were patrolled three times a week and all birds seen and heard were recorded. In all, a total 807 individual bird species spread across 77 bird species, 22 families and 8 orders were recorded. The dominant family was Estrilda it has 7 of the total bird species. Two rare bird species of Malimbe (Malimbus erythrogaster and Malimbus scutalus) were encountered in the study area. The relative abundance of bird species were higher (25.2 and 18.9) dry season was higher than the wet season (18.9and 18.2 of the year, This study showed that the value of Shannon diversity index for bird species was higher in the dry season (3.52) than the farmland (3.438). A total of 13 taxas and 17 individual trees species belonging to 13 families were enumerated.
KEYWORDS: Home Range, Diversity, Avian Species, Agricultural intensification and Habitat Fragmentation.

6-Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Castanea based on chloroplast rbcL with focusing Irania Chestnu
Sulmaz Janfaza*, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Nasr,Hamed Yousefzadeh, Roberto Botta, Asad Asadi Abkenar
Page 312-323


The aim of this study is the evaluation of chloroplast rbcl markers in the genetic
differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of European chestnut (Castanea sativa
Mill.), which is one of the valuable species of endangered Hyrcanian Forests .In this
study, the use of molecular markers is the easy and fast way in identifying taxonomic
position of northern Iranian Castanea. Meanwhile, leaf samples were collected from
all the habitat of this species in Iran (4 sites listed in the western part of the province
of Gilan). Genomic DNA from leaves were extracted by CTAB method.( modified by
Janfaza and et al inter periation 2016) PCR reaction amplified by universal rbcl
primers and the fragments were sequenced .The results showed that rbcl region in
Iranian Castanea is about 542 nucleotides .The comparison of the available
sequences in GenBank, the numbers of nucleotides adenine and thymine in Castanea
were more than other nucleotides which was similar with Iranian Castanea species in
nucleotide composition .Phylogenetic Tree analysis showed that from 542 nucleotide
positions, there were 22 conserved sites, 17 variable sites, and 8 parsimony positions.
Based on the phylogenetic tree drawn on the base of rbcl marker showed that Iranian
Castanea is in the same group with C.sativa species .Also the highest genetic
similarity was observed between the Hyrcanian Castanea and European Castanea .
KEYWORDS: Iranian Castanea, phylogeny, genetic diversity

7- Studies on temporal pattern of butterfly distribution in Sanjay Park, Ambikapur, Chattisgarh
Barwa M, Ranga M.M. , Banerjee A*
Page 324- 339


The present study was aimed to assess the diversity, distribution of butterflies
on temporal scale along with to study the impact of temperature on butterfly
diversity at different study sites of Sanjay park, Ambikapur, Chattisgarh. The
present investigation was carried out during June 2015 to April 2016. The
entire park were divided into five different study sites on the basis of habitat
characteristics. Data were recorded during Monsoon, Winter, Summer
seasons. During the entire study period 20 species of butterfly were recorded
from five study sites at Sanjay Park. Butterfly diversity at Sanjay Park
represented four families which includes Nymphalidae, Papiolionidae,
Pieridae and Lycaenidae. Nymphalidae were found to be the most
predominant over the other butterfly families. Practices such as
monoplantation of flowering plants at different seasons, higher level of
anthropogenic influence were found to be the significant factor to influence
the butterfly diversity and distribution at Sanjay Park. Proper management
practices needs to be implemented to conserve the butterfly diversity of Sanjay
KEYWORDS: Nymphallidae, diversity, seasonal variation,
Temperature, Indiar.

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